(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Annual report of the Commissioner of Animal Industry"

■^^^■hhw 



-E 





700 






Public Document 




No. 98 



THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

t 



1914. 



! 



For the Year ending November 30, 1914, 




ilol 

BOSTON: / 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1915. 



Public Document 



No. 98 



THIED ANNUAL EEPOET 



~*~ 



/ * / s H 



OF THE 



Commissioner of Animal Industry. 



1914. 



For the Year ending November 30, 1914. 




BOSTON : 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

32 DERNE STREET. 

1915. 

w 




Approved by 
The State Board op Publication. 



• • 


> # • 

• •• 




• • * * 

• • 




.« 


* * 






* 


•• * ( 

• • i 


ft • 


»• • • 


• •* • 






* • 






• 


»« • 


• • 


• • • • 


* * * ■ » 










• 


• 1 < 


. » 


• * * 


• • 


••• . 


• • • 


♦. 


4 • ft 


* 






• » ft • 






» • • 


• • 


• w • 


* 


*• .* 


-J 














• # 


• 




















. * 






*• • 














• 


• • 


(ft 




• •• 


» 












••• 


• 9 


• 










• 4 

• *• 


»'• *: 


• ••. 


• 
9 ft 


• • • 

• • 

i * • 


• • • 




• 




• 


• • « • 


. * . 


• • ■ 


• 


* • 


• 


• *'• 


• • 




* • 


• • a 


•* 


r • 




•• 


• • 




O 




ft * 


••• . 


• •' 


ft.c 


••• 


• 


».« 




•» 




ft ft 



®l)C Comtnontocaltt) of Jtlas0acbu0ett0. 



Department of Animal Industry, 
Boston, Dec. 1, 1914. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: — 

In accordance with the provisions of section 4, chapter 608, 
Acts of 1912, which act is entitled "An Act to abolish the 
Cattle Bureau of the State Board of Agriculture, and to create 
a Department of Animal Industry," I have the honor to 
, present to the General Court the third annual report of the 
work accomplished by this department for the fiscal year end- 
ing Nov. 30, 1914. 

The Department of Animal Industry has in its life of less 
than three years grown to substantial proportions, and, from 
the viewpoints of completeness of organization and the loyalty 
and all-round efficiency of its field and office staffs, is regarded 
by those who have had experience and association with similar 
departments in other States, and are thereby competent to 
judge, to have reached an enviable standard of excellence. To 
the staff of agents above referred to there has during the past 
year been added two men, Dr. Edward A. Cahill and Dr. 
William H. Shannon, whose qualifications and fitness for special 
work cause them to rank among the best. Dr. Edward A. 
Cahill of Lowell, formerly associated with the Live Stock Sani- 
tary Board of Pennsylvania, is, in my opinion, an especially 
valuable man, because his previous training in laboratory and 
field work in connection with hog-cholera control in Pennsyl- 
vania has fitted him to engage in that branch of work for this 
department. Dr. William H. Shannon of Boston, a graduate 
of the veterinary department of the University of Pennsylvania, 
although the youngest man in term of service, is displaying a 
highly enviable degree of energy and interest in the work, and 
gives great promise of becoming an extremely valuable man 
for the department. 

I am confident that the department details are well grounded, 
and that the policy I sought to establish at the outset of my 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



administration is the correct one, viz., that the department's 
principal object is to improve the cattle industry of the State, 
not to injure or destroy it; to promote and safeguard the 
health of the domestic animals in the State; to establish a 
spirit of co-operation between the owners of stock and the 
department rather than a spirit of hostility; to educate rather 
than persecute the individual owner, and, while insisting upon 
law observance, to see that justice is meted out to every one. 
Under such a policy, with a continuance of the splendid loyalty 
now existent in the working force, Massachusetts must occupy 
a leading position in live-stock sanitary control work. 

I wish to emphasize the fact that owners of stock, almost 
without exception, have met the representatives of this depart- 
ment in a spirit of co-operation, and the agents of the depart- 
ment are no longer avoided by them, but are sought for con- 
sultation and advice. The activity of owners of barns where 
neat cattle are housed, in the way of making sanitary changes 
as. suggested by department inspectors, is a marked feature of 
improvement, and is most commendable. Every succeeding 
year of this policy of education, of persuasion rather than perse- 
cution, must bring results more and more satisfying. 

The general work of the department has not differed in 
nature from that of the years immediately preceding. It has, 
however, been much more exhaustive in character and com- 
plete in detail, as the result of a more perfected organization 
and efficiency born of experience. 



Rabies. 
The following table shows the extent of rabies during the 
year ending Nov. 30, 1914: — 





Dogs. 


Cattle. 


Cats. 


Horses. 


Pigs. 


Killed or died with rabies, 

Killed by owners or died in quarantine, not 

rabid. 
Released from quarantine, 

Animals still in quarantine, 


250 
184 

277 
49 


5 
1 
3 


1 
1 


1 
1 


8 
428 


Totals, 


760 


9 


2 


2 


436 




1,209 animals. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 

At the laboratory, the brains of 108 dogs and 1 cat were 
examined microscopically by Dr. Langdon Frothingham, and of 
these, 78 dogs were positive and 24 negative. The cat was 
also found to have had rabies. The heads of seven other' dogs 
were received at this laboratory too badly decomposed to per- 
mit of an examination to determine whether or not the animals 
were rabid at the time of death. 

It is regrettable that there is an increase in the number of 
cases of rabies in dogs over that of last year, and much to be 
deplored that animals manifesting strange symptoms are not 
more promptly placed in confinement and watched until either 
found to be free from disease, or symptoms of a suspicious 
character have developed. 

At the expense of repeating my former advice along this 
line, I would say that the early recognition of the symptoms 
of rabies makes the prompt reporting to the proper authorities* 
possible. Such early reports promptly acted upon tend to re- 
duce greatly the number of outbreaks of the disease, and logi- 
cally would lessen immensely the number of persons who annu- 
ally find it necessary to take the Pasteur treatment because 
either bitten by or exposed to rabid animals. Over 100 people 
have been so exposed this year, of which by far the greater 
number were children. 

The unknown or ownerless animal still plays a prominent 
part in this trouble, and this shows the necessity for the proper 
enforcement of the laws relating to the licensing of all dogs, 
and the humane destruction of such waifs of the canine world 
as are to be found in every community. 

Some few owners from time to time complain of the irksome- 
ness of the period of quarantine placed upon animals believed 
to have been exposed to a case of rabies, but the wisdom of the 
department's action is evident when it is pointed out that 
animals frequently develop rabies during the latter part of the 
period of quarantine, and in fact during the past year one 
animal did develop the disease after the ninety-day period had 
expired. 



6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 



Glanders. 

Not by any means the least important of the problems that 
confront this department is that of control of glanders. As 
a result of the more recently enacted laws and of a more com- 
pletely adjusted and well-organized campaign against this 
disease, I have to report most flattering success in this branch 
of our control work during the past year, as the following fig- 
ures and statements will emphasize. 

Eighteen hundred and seventeen horses and mules have dur- 
ing the past year been reported as suspected of having glanders 
or farcy, including those dealt with in stable tests. Of this 
number, 846 were killed or died, and were found to be affected 
with glanders; 928 were released after examination, and 43 
were held for further observation. 

Of the 38 cases held over from last year, 5 were killed or 
died, 16 were released as free from, disease, and 17 are still 
under observation, making a total of 851 cases of glanders 
during the year. Of this number, 352 were located in the city 
of Boston. 

It will be noted that although 187 more suspected cases were 
reported and examined by agents of the department, the num- 
ber of actual cases found was 255 less than in the previous year. 

In the report submitted for the year ending Nov. 30, 1913, 
it was mentioned that as a means of further checking the 
spread of glanders it was deemed necessary to order the closing 
of the public drinking troughs in the city of Boston, as in that 
year 52 per cent, of the positive cases found in Massachusetts 
were discovered in the city of Boston. The report stated that 
on November 1 this order had been complied with. 

The public works department of the city of Boston, by pro- 
viding taps at convenient locations throughout the city, enabled 
drivers to obtain water without great inconvenience either to 
themselves or to the horses in their charge. Considerable pres- 
sure was brought to bear to have these troughs opened during 
the summer months, but, believing my stand on the matter to 
be right, I was able to overcome the objections raised, and 
kept the troughs closed. I have failed to find from reports re- 
ceived that any undue suffering was caused, and in fact the 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 

closing of these public drinking places has not only been bene- 
ficial from the standpoint of glanders control, but I have been 
informed by a great many owners of horses and by several 
veterinarians that there had been fewer " colics" or cases of 
indigestion this past summer than ever before. 

The wisdom of having taken this step is well proven by the 
fact that there were killed in Boston this year only 352 horses 
affected with glanders, against 576 horses killed in 1913, a 
falling off of 224, or 39 per cent., whereas in the balance of the 
State there were 497 horses killed in 1914, against 530 in 1913, 
a falling off of 33 cases, or 6 per cent., thereby showing that 
the greatly reduced number in the city of Boston must have 
been due to some cause other than a natural subsidence in the 
disease itself. 

The watering troughs in the following cities were also ordered 
closed : — 



Cambridge 


Chelsea 


Medford 


Everett 


Somerville 


Maiden 


Quincy 







The advisability of requiring that all horses arriving from 
the States of New York, Rhode Island and Connecticut shall 
be accompanied by a permit issued from this department 
is shown by the fact that of 268 horses tested by agents 
of the department after having been admitted under such 
permits, 21 were found to be suffering from glanders, and were 
killed. 

The ophthalmo-mallein test, material for which is obtained 
from the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, is proving 
to be of great value in conjunction with the complement- 
fixation test in the diagnosing of doubtful and nonclinical 
cases. It is also being employed in the making of stable tests, 
with highly satisfactory results. 

The subcutaneous injection of mallein has been discontinued, 
as it has been found to detract from the value of other diag- 
nostic tests. 

During the year, 1,688 samples of blood have been taken 
from 1,274 horses. Of this number, 447 horses were killed, 
777 released, 25 died, and 25 are held for further test. 



8 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Eight hundred and seventy-three ophthalmo-mallein tests 
were applied during the year, with the following results: 261 
gave positive results, 533 were negative and 79 unsatisfactory. 

A more thorough system of disinfection was adopted during 
the past year, an agent of the department inspecting the work 
done before compensation for a condemned animal is allowed. 
The blacksmith in whose shop the horse was last shod is 
obliged to disinfect the walls, chains, etc., in said shop. 

Early in December a copy of the following letter was sent 
to every horseshoeing establishment in Boston: — 

The Commonwealth op Massachusetts, 
Department of Animal Industry, 

State House, Boston, Nov. 24, 1913. 

Dear Sir: — You will find enclosed copy of a recent order issued by me 
relative to the disinfection of blacksmith shops in the city of Boston; also 
copy of the rules and regulations of this department for disinfection. 

It is not necessary for me to bring to your attention the grave condition 
that confronts the horse-owning interests of Boston and vicinity because 
of the prevalence of glanders. In order to control the further spread of 
this disease so far as we can, may I ask you to co-operate with me along 
the lines of the enclosed order? It applies to all premises where horses, 
asses or mules are shod, and an agent of this department will visit your 
place from time to time to see if its provisions have been complied with. 
Certificate of this department to that effect will be furnished on applica- 
tion. 

Thanking you in advance for giving this matter immediate and constant 
attention, I am 

Respectfully yours, 

Fred Freeland Walker, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Enclosed with this letter was a copy of the following order: — 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
Department op Animal Industry, 

State House, Boston, Nov. 1, 1913. 

To Owners and Tenants of Blacksmith Shops in the City of Boston: — 

Whereas the disease of glanders among horses in the city of Boston has 
spread to such an alarming extent as to call fcr special effort for its pre- 
vention and control, and whereas blacksmith shops are, in my opinion, a 
factor in the spread of said disease, 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 9 

I, therefore, acting under authority vested in me by law, and with the 
approval of the Governor and Council, as set forth in section 4 of Depart- 
ment Order No. 1, hereby order: — 

All blacksmith shops within the limits of the city of Boston must be 
kept freshly whitewashed and disinfected. 

Hitch ropes, chains, or other means of confining animals while in the 
shop must be sponged, sprayed with or dipped in a disinfectant solution, 
and walls faced by animals must be disinfected at least once a day. The 
floors whereon animals are allowed to stand must be disinfected at least 
once a week. 

Fred Freeland Walker, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

(Rules for disinfecting will be sent upon application.) 



Following this letter a systematic inspection of all shops has 
been made, 142 having been visited during the year. Many 
of these shops have been frequently visited by agents of the 
department, as a result of which 99 shops are now being regu- 
larly disinfected, and are, in the opinion of our agents, satis- 
factorily safe establishments. 

I still believe that the amount of compensation now allowed 
for condemned horses is inadequate if eradication of glanders 
is ever to be accomplished; it hinders rather than aids in the 
final disposition of horses which show no clinical symptoms 
but react to the glanders test made in stables where clinical 
cases have occurred, which horses I believe it highly necessary 
should be disposed of promptly. 

Reports of rendering companies, as required by section 111 
of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended by chapter 243 
of the Acts of 1907, continue to be of much value in furnishing 
information of cases of glanders or farcy which would not 
otherwise be brought to the attention o£ the department, as 
the following table illustrates: — 



10 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Reports of Rendering Companies. 



Rendering Companies. 


Number of 
Reports. 


Number of 
Cases. 


Number 

not 

previously 

reported. 


W. H. Abbott, Holyoke 


1 


1 


- 


C. S. Bard, Haverhill, 






3 


3 


- 


Daudelin & Cotton, Ayer, 






1 


1 


- 


William S. Higgins, Saugus, 






22 


23 


1 


Home Soap Company, Millbury, 






7 


12 


- . 


William Lavery, Amesbury, 






3 


4 


- 


Lowell Rendering Company, Lowell, 






7 


7 


- 


A. G. Markham & Co., Springfield, 






1 


2 


- 


James E. McGovern, Andover, 






2 


2 


1 


Muller Brothers, Cambridge, . 






38 


130 


- 


William H. Nankervis, Marlborough, 






6 


6 


1 


New Bedford Extractor Company, . 






23 


29 


- 


New England Rendering Company, Brighton, 


36 


79 


15 


Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Company, Peabody, 


21 


39 


- 


N. Roy, Jr., Fall River, 


26 


32 


- 


Sherborn Rendering Company 


4 


5 


- 


N. Ward Company, South Boston, .... 


49 


304 


6 « 


Whitman & Pratt Rendering Company, North 

Chelmsford. 
S. Winter Company, Brockton, .... 


7 
13 


9 
18 


: 


Worcester Rendering Company, .... 


7 


12 


- 


Totals, . . . 






277 


718 


24 



Interstate Horses. 
Under Department Order No. 8, which went into effect 
Oct. 29, 1913, prohibiting the shipment of horses, asses or 
mules from the States of New York, Connecticut or Rhode 
Island into Massachusetts without a permit issued from this 
department, the work performed is shown by the following 
statistics : — 

Animals brought into State. 

Mules, 27 

Asses, 5 

Donkeys, 3 

Horses, 5,064 

5,099 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 11 



Disposition of Above Animals. 

Died soon after arrival, 3 

Condemned for glanders or farcy, 23 

Released as free from glanders upon examination or test 

by agents of the department, 5,073 

5,099 

Of the 23 interstate horses condemned by the State, 2 
showed no lesions of glanders or farcy upon post-mortem ex- 
amination, and in these cases the owners have been compen- 
sated for their loss by the Commonwealth. These 23 animals 
are included in the total number of horses condemned during 
the year for glanders or farcy. 

Annual Inspection of Neat Cattle, Farm Animals and 
Premises upon which the Former are kept. 

In January a copy of the following circular letter was sent 
to each inspector of animals in the cities and towns of the 
State, together with blank books in which to record the results 
of their work: — 

The Common-wealth op Massachusetts, 
Office of Department of Animal Industry, 

State House, Boston, Jan. 1, 1914. 

Directions to Inspectors of Animals. 

In accordance with section 17, chapter 90 of the Revised Laws, in- 
spectors of animals are hereby directed to make a general inspection of all 
neat cattle, sheep, swine and goats found within the limits of their several 
cities and towns, such inspection to commence January 15, and to be 
completed on or before the first day of March, 1914- 

If upon examination the inspectors find such animals to be free from 
contagious disease, they will give the owner or person in charge thereof a 
certificate of health, as provided for in section 18 of chapter 90 of the 
Revised Laws; but if an inspector has reason to suspect the presence of 
any contagious disease among any species of domestic animals, he is to 
quarantine such animal or animals and send duplicate copy of such quar- 
antine to the Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Contagious diseases under the provisions of section 28 of chapter 90 of 
the Revised Laws include glanders, farcy, mange, contagious pleuro- 
pneumonia, tuberculosis, Texas fever, foot-and-mouth disease, rinder- 
pest, hog cholera, rabies, anthrax or anthracoid diseases, sheep scab and 
actinomycosis. 



12 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Inspectors of animals are hereby directed to inform owners of premises 
when in their opinion conditions are not up to the requirements, and to 
give instruction to have the same changed or improved. 

Books will be forwarded (Form No. 1) for carrying out the provisions of 
sections 17 and 24 of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws. Ten questions may 
be answered by checking the word "Yes" or "No;'' that is, if the answer 
to the question is "Yes," a check mark or cross is to be made on or through 
the word "Yes." Four questions may be answered by checking the proper 
word in the question; that is, question No. 9 reads: "Is stable clean, un- 
clean, or filthy?" If stable is clean, the word "clean" is to be checked or 
crossed; if stable is unclean, the word "unclean" is to be checked or crossed, 
etc. Two questions, Nos. 10 and 16. require the answers to be written cut 
in full; these refer to the disposal of manure and to the nature of improve- 
ments made in either the buildings or surroundings during the past year. 

It is sincerely hoped that the inspection this spring will be a thorough 
one, and it is requested that the answers to the questions be carefully 
made. 

The books necessary for this inspection will be forwarded at once. 
Form No. 1 is to be returned to this office by prepaid express as soon as 
inspection is completed. 

Fred F. Walker, 

Commissioner. 



In referring to this important feature of the department's 1 
work I feel that at this time it is entirely proper for me to 
state, with especial emphasis, that decidedly pronounced im- 
provement has been made in the sanitary conditions of all 
farm buildings and their environments. A new plan has been 
adopted during the past year under which local inspectors of 
animals, acting under specific directions from the department's 
headquarters, become in a more complete sense of the word 
agents of the department. A new form for recording condi- 
tions found by local inspectors, on their annual visitation to 
the various farms in their individual localities, provided that 
by the use of carbon two copies of their record could be secured, 
one of which, was left with the owner and the other retained by 
the inspector, and from the latter full record was made in the 
regular so-called blue book furnished for returning report to 
the office of the department. 

At the time a copy of this record is left with the owner of 
the premises, such recommendations for improved conditions, 
if any, as are necessary, in the opinion of the inspector, are 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 

brought to the attention of the owner by that inspector, and 
the owner is requested to make such improvements. A later 
visit is made by the local inspector, at which time, if conditions 
are found to have been decidedly improved, the report sub- 
mitted to the department in the blue book above referred to 
credits the owner with the conditions found on the second 
visit. Inspired by the ambition to have their buildings re- 
ported in the most favorable class, owners frequently follow the 
recommendations made by the inspector. As a result, many 
of the cases that would formerly have been called to the atten- 
tion of our district agents are satisfactorily disposed of locally, 
giving our district agents a greater opportunity to make general 
supervision of the areas under their charge. In consequence, 
many places not especially referred to by local representatives 
as unsatisfactory have been investigated by our district agents, 
who have thereby been able to confirm the earlier local report, or 
have had an opportunity, if finding conditions below the de- 
partment's standard, to bring the same to the attention of the 
local inspector and instruct him intelligently in reference to his 
course of procedure in the future. 

A continuance of this policy will, in my opinion, rapidly 
raise the standard of our Massachusetts dairy barns to a high 
order of excellence. In fact, a marked improvement is now 
apparent, and from many sections of the State we have re- 
ceived most decidedly flattering reports from citizens not at 
all associated with the department but who are interested in 
general sanitary work. 

The following table embodies a condensed report of the 
doings of the inspectors of animals in making the annual in- 
spection, which complies with the requirements of section 24, 
chapter 90, Revised Laws. For comparison, the corresponding 
figures for 1913 are also given: — ■ 



14 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Net Results of Annual Inspection of Animals and Farm Premises. 



1913. 



1914. 



Number herds inspected, .... 
Number neat cattle inspected, 

Number cows inspected, 

Number herds kept clean and in good condition, 
Number sheep inspected, .... 
Number swine inspected, .... 
Number goats inspected, .... 

Number stables inspected, .... 
Number stables well located, 
Number stables well drained, 
Number stables well ventilated, 
Number stables well lighted, . . . 

Number stables kept clean, .... 
Number stables with good water supply, 
Number stables improved since last inspection, 



30,655 


29,543 


224,951 


218,786 


158,116 


152,636 


27,227 


28,474 


24,847 


19,319 


71,114 


59,221 


1,249 


1,086 


32,055 


30,638 


29,472 


27,926 


30,776 


30,258 


30,112 


30,150 


28,128 


29,398 


26,549 


29,044 


31,683 


30,470 


3,370 


4,209 



The following table embodies a condensed report of the work 
of the district agents in the matter of barn inspection, which 
complies with the requirements of chapter 381 of the Acts of 
1911: — 



1915.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



15 



OS 

go 



.© 



co 

© 

CO 

•to 
•<o 

5, 



03 





^ 




CO 


CO 


1« 00 


»o 




•e^ox 


r- 


CO 


o 




iO OO 
TJH CO^ 


oo 

CO 






«5 


Tin' 




CM 


T-H 








>o 


00 


t^ 


t-h 


r- 1 CO 


l 




-9WM "X 'M. *a 


!>. 


CO 




•& 


CM 








CO 


lO 


00 


CO 


■* o 


UO 




•saSm^g -j j -jq: 


CO 
CM 


I>- 


OO 


IO 


T-H OS 








CO 


1>- 


CO 


CO 


O iO 


OS 




•s^jaqoy; -h •£ -jq 


OS 

oo 


oo 




CO 

CO 


t-h CM 
CM 








-* 


CM 


CM 


OO 


CO T-H 


t>. 




•aoiraj -ay 'H ^d 


t^ 


£-- 




"*l 


T-H 








cm 


O0 


"*H 


T— 1 


tH -* 


OS 




•nmbBj -h ua 


co 

o 
t-h 


CO 
00 


03 


OO 
CM 


r^ co 

CM t-h 


Ttl 






o 


^ 


CO 




O OS 


-HH 




•aSrej a -h 'JO 


CO 

cm 


CM 

CM 




T-H 


cq co 


CM 






OS 




CO 


T* 


OJ CO 


IO 




•jauxj\[ 'i -j\[ -jq 


CO 


'CM 


CM 


1-^ 

CM 


CM 00 


CM 




• 


-tfl 


m 


a> 


CO 


IO OS 


00 




•uotibj\[ Q -^ -apf 


oo 

to 


CO 


CO 


■^1 


CM ^ 

T-H 


CM 






lO 


. 


^ 


o 


1 OS 


CM 




•uoun'BH -fj -g; -jq 


T-H 

CM 


o 

CM 


T-H 


"- 1 


OO 








o© 


t* 


** 


O 


T-H CM 


CM 




•^qrea T '0 "*W 


CM 


CO 
CM 




o 


CM Ui 


IO 






-HH 


03 


iO 


o 


i OS 


1 




•m^o v - a '^a 


OS 


t^. 






CO 








<M 


<3> 


CO 




OJ CM 


t^ 




•ip>p?a 'M o ^a 


CO 


m 




CM 










00 


00 


o 


CO 


CO OS 


l^ 




-ljoaouBg -g -^ -jk 


CO 

00 


OO 


IO 


o 

co 


CO 


UO 












co 


1 CO 


1 














a -s 


a 












<B 


— <u 


• rH 






. 






a 


h a 


>> 

u 












CD 


ssar 
ove 


o3 












O 


CO 
CO 

CD 














CD >-> 












a 


o a 


CD 












a 


§ a 


ti 












•-H 


.-i 


; — | 












>> 


G3 ►*> 

C3 








>> 






03 


to 









<- 






co 


CD Kl 


a 






o 






m 


o « 








o 






CD 

o 

CD 


S 1 


CD 
O 






'/I 




fc 




a s 


o 






'■+3 

i 




CJ 


"3 
oT 


tnore tha 
ade. 
nee, not a 


a 

03 

CD CD 






a 




r/j 


a 
o 


SI 






1 


cd 


a> 


T3 


ted 
ts in 
edo 








O 

a 

u 


"m 

■r 


o 
G 


'7; 


Pal 


to CD 






'ti 


•n 


m 


'/) CD 


ro <D 7) CD 


f/l CD 






cd 


CD 


ii 


CD 73 


CD ^ CD "C 


CD > 














SP3 g 
eg a« c 


3 S 






X> 


XI 


X3 


^ 2 






«3 


n 


«? 


rt c 


$ a 






*» 












i 


CO 


CO 


03 


CO 


CO CO 


CO 





16 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Tuberculosis. 

The war against tuberculosis in cattle is still conducted, in a 
general way, as described in earlier reports on this disease. It 
includes the examination and report by local inspectors; the 
taking up by an agent of the department, who finally disposes 
of the same, of the cases reported as suspicious; and the tuber- 
culin testing of all cattle received from without the State. 

This latter work is being done by approved veterinarians in 
the States from which the cattle come, or by agents of this 
department, either at the quarantine station or at the various 
receiving points throughout the State. The following figures 
show the number of cattle so tested and the results obtained: — 

Cattle Tuberculin Tested. 
Cattle tested at the quarantine station at Brighton, . 17,411 
Cattle tested by veterinarians outside of the State : — 
Received at Brighton, . . . . 674 

Received at other points, .... 2,042 

2,716 

Cattle tested by agents of the department at points 

other than the quarantine station, . . . . 3,518 

— 23,645 



Disposition of Above Cattle. . 

Cattle condemned on Brighton test, 587 

Cattle killed on "permit to kill," tested at Brighton, . 13 

Cattle released from Brighton, 17,485 

Cattle condemned, tested at other points than Brighton, 86 

Released for slaughter, subject to inspection, ... 2 

Released on satisfactory test, 5,472 



23,645 

The foregoing shows that substantially the same number of 
cattle was received at Brighton as in the previous year, the 
shortage as recorded being occasioned by the closing of the 
market during the last three weeks of the official year on 
account of the existence of foot-and-mouth disease. 

The work at the quarantine stations is, as formerly, under 
the direct supervision of Agent Frank C. Field. The general 
excellence of the work done by the efficient corps of assistants 
under his supervision is best instanced by the fact that not a 
single complaint has been filed at the office in reference to that 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 

work that could be substantiated by fact when investigated; 
and especially by the further fact that of the 17,411 cattle re- 
ceived at Brighton and tested there, 587 or 3§ per cent, reacted 
to the tuberculin test, and only one of such reactors failed 
to show lesions of tuberculosis on post-mortem examination. 

The revenue received from testing cattle owned by non- 
residents of Massachusetts amounted during the year to 
$3,776.50, which sum largely offsets the cost of maintenance 
of quarantine stations. 

The following figures show the number of neat cattle quar- 
antined by local inspectors, the number for which warrants 
were issued and the disposition made of the animals: — 

Total number of cattle quarantined or reported for examination 

during the year, . ' . . 2,259 

Massachusetts Cattle. 
Number released, ... . . ' . . . 288 
Number condemned, killed and paid for, . . 880 
Number condemned and killed, in process of set- 
tlement, 141 

Number permit to kill, paid for, .... 63 

Number permit to kill, no award, . . . . 174 

Number died in quarantine, no award, ... 36 

1,582 



Cattle from without the State. 

Number released, 12 

Number condemned and killed, no award, . . 654 
Number condemned and killed, no lesions found, 

paid for, 6 

Number still in process of settlement, ... 5 



677 

Total, 2,259 

Of the 677 interstate cattle, 575 were tested at Brighton; 
no lesions were found in 1, for which the State has reimbursed 
the owner. Of the remaining 101 cattle (which were tested at 
other points than Brighton) 5 were found to show no lesions, 
for which the State has reimbursed the owners, and 5 cases 
are still unsettled. 

In addition to the 2,259 head of cattle disposed of as above, 
133 cattle and 27 swine have been reported by butchers, ren- 



18 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



derers and boards of health as having been found tuberculous 
at the time of slaughter, all of which were rendered. 

The following statistics in connection with the maintenance 
of a quarantine against other States, to prevent the introduc- 
tion of tuberculous cattle from outside sources into Massa- 
chusetts, show the number and kind of animals brought in 
from without the State to the several quarantine stations, the 
quarantine, however, being against neat cattle only: — 



Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stock Yards, from Dec. 1, 1913, to Not. 30, 

1914. 
New Hampshire cattle, 
Vermont cattle, . 



Massachusetts cattle, 
Sheep, . 
Calves, . 
Swine, . 



9,657 
5,056 
3,683 
2,618 
26,142 
4,116 



Receipts of Stock at the Neiv England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's 
Yards at Somerville, from Dec. 1, 1913, to Nov. 30, 1914. 

Maine cattle, 1,731 

New Hampshire cattle, . . . 1,240 

Vermont cattle, 8,155 

Western cattle, . . . . 12,539 

Canada cattle, 2,062 

Sheep, 452,438 

Calves, 47,798 

Swine, . . . . - ■ . . . . . . .... 994,265 



Receipts of Stock at Brighton, from Dec. 1, 1913, to Nov 

Maine cattle, 
New Hampshire cattle, 
Vermont cattle, . 
Massachusetts cattle, 
New York cattle, 
Western cattle, 
Canada cattle, 
Sheep, . 
Calves, . 
Swine, . 



30, 1914- 

12,857 

4,809 

5,591 

14,766 

18,079 

10,198 

155 

14,521 

55,240 

46,700 



The cattle upon which a tuberculin test is required are 
mostly milch cows to be offered for sale at the Brighton market 
Wednesdays, besides a few bulls and working oxen. Those 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 19 

animals that come to Watertown or Somerville are taken to 
Brighton, and all of the testing is done at the stock barn 
there. 

During the year Department Orders 9, 10 and 11 were issued, 
printed on large placards and posted on the quarantine grounds. 
The purpose of these orders, similar to those issued in previous 
years, was to prevent the spread of contagion from any cattle 
which might be brought from districts infected with Texas 
fever or other contagious disease. Order No. 11 practically 
revokes orders 9 and 10, and is as follows: — 

Order No. 11.- 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Department op Animal Industry, 

State House, Boston, Oct. 28, 1914. 

To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

Whereas the diseases known as Texas fever and foot-and-mouth disease , 
which are contagious diseases and are so recognized under the laws of this 
Commonwealth, prevail among cattle in some of the States and territories 
of the United States, and whereas animals infected with or exposed to 
said diseases are likely to be brought upon the premises of the Butchers' 
Slaughtering and Melting Association at Brighton, the New England 
Dressed Meat and Wool Company at Somerville, or the premises of Stur- 
tevant & Haley at Somerville, for slaughter, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 
of the Acts of 1912 and all acts in amendment thereof and addition thereto 
and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following 
order and regulation : — 

The premises of the Butchers' Slaughtering and Melting Association at 
Brighton, the slaughtering department on the premises of the New England 
Dressed Meat and Wool Company at Somerville, and the premises of 
Sturtevant & Haley at Somerville, are hereby quarantined. Neat cattle 
shall be brought upon them for immediate slaughter only. Cattle brought 
upon these premises shall not be removed alive, but shall be slaughtered. 

This order shall be published by posting three or more copies upon the 
premises of the Butchers' Slaughtering and Melting Association at Brighton 
in the city of Boston, three or more copies upon the premises of the New 
England Dressed Meat and Wool Company in Somerville, and three or 
more copies upon the premises of Sturtevant & Haley in Somerville. 

Fred Freeland Walker, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council Nov. 4, 1914. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 



20 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 



Report of Cattle brought into State during the Year to Points outside of the 

Quarantine Stations. 
For dairy and breeding purposes, tested before shipment, 2,042 
For dairy and breeding purposes, tested after arrival, . 3,518 

5,560 



Neat cattle on which no test was required, exclusive of 

cattle and calves for immediate slaughter, .... 1,587 
The last item is made up as follows : — 
Returned from out-of -State pastures, .... 1,026 

Calves under six months old, 165 

Died before test could be made, 2 

For temporary stay on exhibition or at auctions, . 391 

Remaining in State for brief periods only, ... 3 

Cattle for immediate slaughter, 4,069 

Calves for immediate slaughter, . . . . . . .6,140 

— - 10,209 



Total for all purposes, . . 17,356 

Nearly all of the total number of animals given above were 
brought into the State on permits issued by the head of the 
department, only 580 having been brought in without permits, 
which were reported to the department by railroad agents,, 
local inspectors or others. Of these, 104 were tested before 
shipment, 87 were slaughtered at once for beef or veal, 37 
were kept in the State only temporarily, 3 were calves under 
six months old, 126 were returned from pasture, and the re- 
mainder, 223 head, were tested by agents of the department. 

The following figures show the disposition of animals 
brought into the State to points outside of the quarantine 
stations at Brighton, Watertown and Somerville which failed 
to pass a satisfactory tuberculin test : — 

Condemned on first test, .43 

Condemned on second test, . .41 

Reacted, but died before retest could be made, 1 

Failed to react on second test, but showed physical symptoms, 1 

Released for slaughter on first test; subject to inspection, . . 2 

88 

In five of the above cases in which warrants to kill have 
been issued, report of post-mortem examination has not yet 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 21 

been received; in 1 case the result cannot now be known, al- 
though the animal was probably tuberculous; 2 head were in a 
herd affected with foot-and-mouth disease, and were killed be- 
cause of that disease before warrants issued for their slaughter 
on account of tuberculosis could be executed; 2 head released 
for slaughter on first test were found to be diseased, as was the 
animal that failed to react on second test; the carcass of the 
animal that died before it could be retested showed indications 
of disease; in 9 head no lesions of tuberculosis were found upon 
post-mortem examination, and the animals either have been 
or will be paid for by the State; the remainder, 67 head, all 
proved to be tuberculous. 

There were 1,044 permits issued, 156 of which were not used. 
Eleven permits were issued for pasturing herds in the State 
during the season; 2 were issued allowing cattle to be unloaded 
in transit through the State; and 11 special permits to persons 
living near the border line, allowing cattle to be kept in the 
State for brief periods without test. 

During the spring and early summer agents of the depart- 
ment examined and tagged 1,816 Massachusetts cattle which 
were to be sent into New Hampshire and Vermont for pasture 
during the season. Some of these were returned in the fall on 
special permits, and many were brought to the quarantine sta- 
tion at Brighton, where they were identified and released by 
the agent in charge of that station. 

After November 7 no cattle were allowed to be brought into 
the State except for immediate slaughter, and then only to 
establishments which were under federal inspection, because of 
the quarantine restrictions which went into force early in No- 
vember on account of the discovery of foot-and-mouth disease; 
otherwise the total receipts of live stock from out of the State 
would probably have been considerably larger. 

For several years, at the request of the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of all 
live stock at the port of Boston has been sent to Washington 
each month. The report is made to show weekly receipts. 
The following table shows the receipts, by months, for the past 
year : — 



22 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Receipts of Live Stock at Boston for 


Twelve Months ending Nov. 30, 1914- 


For Month of — • 


Cattle. 


Calves. 


Sheep. 


Swine. 


Horses. 


December, 


13,793 


10,422 


53,509 


163,781 


1,859 


January, 












9,518 


7,700 


37,166 


107,948 


1,760 


February, 












7,590 


8,102 


28,000 


81,168 


1,816 


March, 












8,809 


13,784 


34,495 


100,393 


2,616 


April, . 












6,638 


10,298 


20,682 


69,728 


2,288 


May, . 












6,313 


13,582 


21,652 


71,337 


2,497 


June, . 












8,738 


14,909 


35,399 


113,926 


3,076 


July, . 












6,424 


10,055 


40,048 


73,632 


1,985 


August, 












10,790 


12.76S 


45,836 


71,300 


2,487 


September, 












10,844 


9,547 


49,340 


58,882 


2,398 


October, 












11,564 


11,488 


55,707 


68,623 


2,605 


November, 












9,557 


8,525 


47,743 


63,365 


1,992 


Totals, 




110,578 


131,180 


469,577 


1,044,083 


27,379 



Such owners of cattle as have voluntarily petitioned the 
department for the tuberculin testing of their herds by the 
State have been accorded this privilege where conditions seemed 
to justify it. Two persons made voluntary requests to have 
their herds so tested, — the herds comprising 28 head of cattle, 
27 of which were found to be free from disease, and 1 was 
slaughtered on a permit to kill, no award allowed. 



Hog Cholera. 

In June of 1914 the department began an active campaign 
against hog cholera in this State. Such a campaign was found 
necessary because of the large number of deaths in swine, and 
the corresponding financial loss to farmers due to the disease. 
While Massachusetts is not considered a hog-raising State, it 
is known that we have more than our proportionate share of 
hog cholera as compared with the hog-raising western States, 
and because of this there is a great diminution in the number 
of swine in the State, as shown by the following statistics : — 



Number of Swine in Massachusetts. 



1912, 
1913, 
1914, 



98,836 
71,114 
59,221 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 23 

There is a visible decrease in these years of 39,615 animals, 
which indicates plainly the loss to both State and farmer. 
This decrease is known to be due principally to hog cholera. 
The majority of hog raisers have had their herds of swine so 
often and so completely destroyed by the disease that, in spite 
of the fact that there is more profit in swine to-day than ever 
before, it has become necessary for them to give up raising 
rather than to restock and risk another loss. 

Inasmuch as the value of serum treatment for hog cholera 
has proven satisfactory, I decided to make this a branch of the 
departmental activity to aid the public, and consequently in 
June this branch of the work was actively begun. As a result 
of our demonstrational and educational work among the. farmers 
and veterinarians, and judging from actual statistics given be- 
low, we feel that we have laid an excellent foundation for the 
immunization work which is to follow next year. 

During the past year 100 outbreaks of cholera were reported. 
Of this number, 80 proved upon investigation to be positive 
cases; in the remaining 20 suspected outbreaks, no hog cholera 
was found. This gives only a slight idea of the amount of hog 
cholera which actually exists in the State. It has been custom- 
ary for years for owners not to report the existence of hog 
cholera in their herds because so little could be done for it, 
and the farmer, until recently, would either slaughter the ani- 
mals or allow them to die. As a result of our activity with 
serum as a preventive and curative, public interest has been 
aroused, more cases have been reported, and State aid has been 
requested. 

As far as our records show, approximately 900 head of swine 
died last year without treatment, or previous to our using 
serum in control work. If all animals which actually died 
of hog cholera had been reported, I believe this number 
would have been tripled. 

Previous to June 1 anti-hog-cholera serum was used on 315 
animals in 10 herds. Of this number, 89, or 29 l t per cent., 
died following treatment. Up to this time the double treatment 
had not been used except experimentally. During the remain- 
der of the year 591 animals in 18 herds received the simul- 
taneous or double treatment. Of this number 12, or 2 per cent., 



24 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

died after the treatment. In the same length of time 428 animals 
in 31 infected herds received the single treatment, and 41, or 9.5 
per cent., died. The usual mortality from hog cholera is from 
90 to 100 per cent, of all animals on infected premises; con- 
sequently the above figures would indicate that to date we 
have saved by the use of the single and double treatments 
1,264 animals, which have been vaccinated, have recovered and 
been released. This represents a saving to the farmers of ap- 
proximately $12,000 since June 1. 

In addition to the above there are still five herds which are 
under observation and treatment, in which our work has not 
been completed. In these five herds there are approximately 
4,000 animals, of which number 3,000 have received the double 
treatment, and 1,000 the single treatment. Results in these 
cases will be ascertained later, inasmuch as sufficient time has 
not yet elapsed since treatment to determine them properly 
at this time. In all five of these herds a large percentage of 
animals has been lost each year from cholera for a period of 
from four to twenty years past. In each instance following 
vaccination, losses from the cholera, which was present at 
the time of vaccination, have ceased completely, at least 
temporarily. 

One striking factor in this work is that all of the above herds 
have been badly infected ones. In two herds in which the 
animals have been inoculated and in which no infection existed, 
there has not been a single death. We have proven conclusively 
that the double treatment, properly administered by experts 
under proper conditions, is absolutely safe, and a sure pre- 
ventive if used on noninfected farms. On the other hand, it 
has been proven in other States that the promiscuous or un- 
scientific use of virus is the most dangerous factor connected 
with the spread of the disease of hog cholera. 

Regarding the single treatment, as our results indicate, this 
has been used practically only on animals which were infected, 
and therefore may be regarded as a curative. While strictly 
speaking we do not advocate serum as a curative agent, we 
have had excellent results when using it in infected herds, the 
percentage of deaths, 9.5, being extremely low. In our work 
there has been a noticeable lack of deaths due to abscesses 



1915.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 25 

and infections following vaccination. This has generally been 
the cause of many deaths which have followed vaccination, and 
it is gratifying to find that our percentage is practically nothing. 
This, of course, is due to the fact that our agents take all 
recognized antiseptic precautions, and insist on proper after- 
care of the animals. 

The most objectionable feature of the work as at present 
carried on is the fact that we are necessarily obliged to depend 
entirely upon commercial virus and serum. This has resulted 
in our using virus, in at least two instances, which was impo- 
tent, and which, instead of causing a permanent immunity in 
the vaccinated animals, caused merely a temporary one, with 
embarrassing after results. While we use commercial virus, 
this complication is liable to arise at any time ; and in my 
opinion it is absolutely imperative that, if the department is 
to do necessary work in connection with hog cholera, the State 
should have its own facilities for making virus at least, if not 
serum. At present the only cost to the farmer is that of the 
serum and virus used on his animals. This is now 2 x /i cents 
per cubic centimeter, or approximately 1 cent per pound of 
live weight, which deters a great many owners from having 
even the serum treatment alone used. If we were able to 
manufacture our own serum, we could reduce the cost to the 
farmer at least 1 cent per cubic centimeter. We should either 
furnish the highest grade serum and virus free, or make our 
own and sell it at cost, when used by agents of this department. 
This, of course, would require an appropriation. 

The few following fundamental facts have been established 
by our work: — 

1. That in noninfected herds we can confer a lasting im- 
munity with practically no danger. As a resirit, we urge the 
double treatment in noninfected herds in infected neighbor- 
hoods. In noninfected herds in neighborhoods where no chol- 
era exists, we do not advise treatment. 

2. That the double treatment is of high value for well ani- 
mals in infected herds, as it confers a lasting immunity. 

3. That it pays to use the " serum only" treatment on swine 
showing symptoms of acute cholera. 

4. That it does not pay to use scrum on chronic cases. 



26 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

i it 

In addition to the above, we are doing a large amount of 
experimental -work. This is, of course, absolutely necessary. 
Among the most important requirements for carrying on this 
work, which we now lack, are a cheaper method of immuniza- 
tion of young pigs and a curative agent in chronic cases. 

The situation is at present most encouraging. The public 
has awakened to the fact that it can receive State aid, and 
that this department is handling the serum treatment most 
advantageously. As a result, cases are being reported more 
promptly, quarantines are being better observed, and the de- 
mand for serum treatment even now taxes the resources of the 
department. We hope in the coming year to do very much 
more work along this line, particularly among herds of individual 
farmers. Thus far a large percentage of our work has been in 
herds owned by State and other institutions, but indications 
are that the coming year will see much more vaccination 
among the farmers' herds. 

The statistics in connection with the work of hog cholera 
given above are also given below in tabular form. 

Hog Cholera Statistics. 

Number of outbreaks reported, 100 

Number of outbreaks reported not cholera, upon examination, . 20 

Number of reported swine known to have died without treatment, 

approximate, 900 

Number of herds known to be infected, 65 

Number of herds given single treatment previous to June 1, . . 10 
Number of animals in these herds released after completed treat- 
ment, . 305 

Number of animals in same herds which died after single treat- 
ment (29.2 per cent.), 89 

Number of herds in which double treatment has been used since 

June 1, 18 

Number of animals in these herds which received double treat- 
ment, 591 

Number of animals which died following double treatment (2 per 

cent.), ' . 12 

Number of herds in which single treatment has been used since 

June 1, 31 

Number of animals in these herds which received single treatment, 428 
Number of animals which died following single treatment (9.5 per 

cent.), 41 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



27 



Number of animals saved by single and double treatment, in which 

treatment has been completed, 1,264 

Number of infected herds still .under treatment, December 1, . 5 

Number of animals in these herds, approximate, .... 4,000 

Number of animals given double treatment, . . . . . 3,000 

Number of animals given single treatment, ..... 1,000 

Number of noninfected herds, ........ 2 

Number of animals in these herds, . . . . ... 104 

Number of single treatments, 

Number of deaths following double treatment, 



From the department's study of treatment of hogs infected 
with or exposed to hog cholera, and acting under the advice 
of agents of the department who had made the study of this 
disease a specialty, together with the advice of national and 
other State live-stock sanitary authorities, I recommended the 
adoption of an order prohibiting the sale, distribution and use 
of virulent blood from hog-cholera-infected hogs, or "virus," 
and anti-hog-cholera serum, in this State, except by permission 
of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. Before taking this 
step I had carefully considered the possibility of unduly in- 
terfering with the practice of regularly registered veterinarians. 
Since coming to the department, I have strenuously avoided 
any interference on the part of that department with the indi- 
vidual right or practice of such regularly registered veterinari- 
ans; and in urging the passage of the following order, I felt 
that the department could, through the operations of its spe- 
cialists, who were qualified by special training to administer the 
remedies therein referred to, contribute not only to the ultimate 
success of the department and benefit to the individual farmer, 
but could eventually, through the educational work done by our 
specialists in this line, cause owners of hogs, as well as veterina- 
rians, to become more familiar than they are at present with 
the possibilities of their use, to the end that eventually this 
method of treatment might be more generally adopted under 
the approval of both owners and professional men alike. 

It has been my custom to instruct our specialists to invite 
observation of their operations, on the part of local veter- 
inarians and owners who would take proper sanitary precau- 
tions to v prevent spread of infection, to the end that all inter- 



28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

ested might become more familiar with the general subject 
and the possibilities of success through the intelligent use of 
the materials referred to in the following order : — 

Order No. 12. 

The Commonwealth op Massachusetts, 
Department op Animal Industry, 

State House, Boston, Oct. 28, 1914. 

To All Persons whom it may concern: — ■ 

Whereas the disease known as hog cholera, which is a contagious disease 
and is so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, prevails ex- 
tensively among swine in this Commonwealth, and whereas it has become 
necessary to adopt measures foi the prevention of the spread of said con- 
tagious disease, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 
of the Acts of 1912, and all acts in amendment thereof and addition 
thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the 
following order and regulation: — 

No person, firm or corporation shall distribute, sell or use in the Com- 
monwealth of Massachusetts virulent blood from hog-cholera-infected hogs, 
or "virus," or anti-hog-cholera serum, unless written permission has been 
obtained from the Commissioner of. Animal Industry for such distribution, 
sale or use, which written permission will be granted persons deemed 
proper by the Commissioner of Arimal Industry. 

This order shall take effect upon its approval. 

This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of 
animals in the Commonwealth, and by distribution to known breeders of 
swine, to commercial houses known to be dealing in the aforesaid com- 
modity, and to veterinarians registered under the laws of the Common- 
wealth. 

Fred Freeland Walker, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Nov. 11, 1914. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 

FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE. 

The regular routine work of the department was suddenly 
interrupted early in November. (November 5, to be exact), when a 
telegram was received at department headquarters from Dr. 
Henry E. Paige of Amherst, announcing a probable case of 
foot-and-mouth disease in that town. The rapidity with which 
this disease spreads, its dangerous nature, a menace to beast 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29 

and man, and the possible loss of valuable income-producing 
property demanded instant attention and quick action. Be- 
lieving that the department met the crisis promptly and effec- 
tively, I deem it wise to place before your honorable body a 
chronological story of the department's action, such action 
being based on and in harmony with the code established by 
the United States Bureau of Animal Industry. 

My attention was first attracted by a newspaper paragraph 
to the effect that foot-and-mouth disease bad been discovered 
in Niles, Mich., on October 15, and I was especially inter- 
ested because of the added statement that the disease had 
been prevalent in Michigan and northern Indiana since early 
in August. 

Prior to November 5, when I was notified of the probable 
presence of the disease in this State, I had ordered our agents 
to exercise extra care in ante-mortem examinations, especially 
in cattle coming from western areas. We had received no word 
from the United States Bureau of Animal Industry at the 
time of these early precautions, although that Bureau super- 
vises all interstate shipments of cattle, and is considered to be 
especially active in guarding the several States along the line 
of shipment from live stock from infected areas. Hearing 
nothing in the way of warning from this official source, I nat- 
urally assumed that the disease was well in hand in the West, 
and that the probability of its reaching Massachusetts was 
more or less remote. 

On October 21 Dr. William T. White, agent of this depart- 
ment, who had been attending, as a delegate, a meeting of the 
Eastern Live Stock Sanitary Association at Albany, N. Y., 
telegraphed me that Dr. Wills, chief veterinarian of New York, 
had referred to the existence of the disease in the Buffalo 
stockyards. I at once told Dr. James F. llyder, in charge of the 
Boston station of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, 
what I had heard, and asked him if he had cognizance of the 
disease being as far east as Buffalo. His reply was in the nega- 
tive. I requested him to have the federal department notified, 
and that all ears bringing cattle to Massachusetts be disinfected 
before shipment. A few days later I asked again if he had 
heard of any cases in Buffalo, and again he answered he had not. 



30 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

As a matter of precaution I established the most systematic 
and rigorous ante-mortem examinations of all cattle arriving 
from western points. The federal authorities co-operated with 
this department under Dr. Ryder's supervision, subjecting the 
stock to a double inspection. No evidence of disease was 
found in any shipment, and it was like lightning out of a clear 
sky when I received notice from Dr. Henry E. Paige, on No- 
vember 5, of a probable case in Amherst, Mass. With Dr. 
Ryder I visited this herd November 6, and he confirmed the 
diagnosis made earlier by our Dr. Henry E. Paige and Prof. 
James B. Paige. We found the premises thoroughly policed 
and a substantial and strict quarantine was established. 

On the afternoon of November 5 I heard of a case at Men- 
don, Mass., and Agent F. C. Field was sent out to investigate. 
His report, made at 6 p.m., confirmed the diagnosis, and the 
infected herd was quarantined, as well as three adjacent herds 
using the same brook for water supply. On my return from 
Amherst, November 6, active operations, including the closing 
of the Brighton stockyards, were begun, to prevent the spread 
of the disease. Agents of the department were equipped with 
rubber outfits, and sent to different parts of the State to make 
careful examination of cattle that were known to have gone 
from the Brighton stockyards during the previous fortnight. 
On the receipt of notice of the first evidence of the disease in 
the State, I had secured from the leading dealers at the Brighton 
stockyards a list of their sales for two weeks prior to the closing 
of the yards, and through the information so obtained we 
were speedily enabled to locate practically every animal that 
had been distributed from that point. 

Realizing that the situation was decidedly grave, and that 
the pending embargo would involve the interests of many in- 
dustries within the State, I called in consultation twenty-five 
leading farmers, representatives of slaughtering establishments, 
and veterinarians, for the purpose of acquainting them with 
my proposed plan of campaign, and benefiting from their ad- 
vice. They met me at the State House November 7, and on 
the same day His Excellency the Governor called a special 
session of the Council to act on two orders recommended by 
me, which placed in absolute and unqualified quarantine every 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31 

farm in the State, and prohibited the movement of any live 
stock from one building to another, if such movement was to 
be over any highway or byway, and also prohibited the removal 
of any material from infected premises. So successful was the 
working of this quarantine that less than ten of the cases that 
have developed in Massachusetts trace their origin to any 
point other than the Brighton stockyards. The orders above 
referred to follow : — 

Order No. 13. 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Department op Animal Industry, 

State House, Boston, Nov. 7, 1914. 

To All Persons whom it may concern: — • 

Whereas the disease known as foot-and-mouth disease, which is a 
contagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this Common- 
wealth, exists among animals in this Commonwealth, and whereas it has 
become necessary to adopt measures for the prevention of the spread of 
said contagious disease, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 
of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and additions: 
thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the 
following order and regulation : — 

No hay, straw, forage, grain, utensils or other material shall be removed 
from premises upon which foot-and-mouth disease exists and for such 
period thereafter as in the opinion of the Commissioner of Animal Industry 
the public safety so demands, except by permission of the Commissioner 
of Animal Industry. 

This order shall take effect upon i + s approval. 

This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of 
animals in the Commonwealth, to registered veterinarians within the 
Commonwealth, and by general distribution. 

Fred Freeland Walker, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Nov. 7, 1914. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 

Order No. 14. 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Department of Animal [ndustry, 

State HOUSE, Boston-, Nov. 7, 1911. 

To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

Whereas the disease known as foot-and-mouth disease, which is a con- 
tagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this ( lommonwealth, 



32 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

exists among animals in this Commonwealth, 'and whereas it has become 
necessary to adopt measures for the prevention of the spread of said con- 
tagious disease, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provision of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 
of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and additions 
thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the 
following order and regulation : — 

No neat cattle, sheep, other ruminants or swine are to be shipped or 
transported by railroad, boat or other conveyance, or to be driven on any 
public highway or byway within the Commonwealth, except by permission 
of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

All dogs or cats on quarantined premises must be securely restrained 
during the period of quarantine. 

This order shall cake effect upon its approval. 

This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of 
animals in the Commonwealth, to registered veterinarians within the 
Commonwealth, and by general distribution. 

Fred Freeland Walker, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council Nov. 7, 1914. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 



On November 8 I went to Washington and consulted with 
Dr. A. D. Melvin of the federal bureau in order to perfect a 
plan of co-operation with the national government. During 
the conference the following day I was informed that the disease 
had spread to fourteen States. I was told by Dr. Melvin that 
the United States Department of Agriculture proposed to sub- 
mit to the governments of infected States a plan of compensa- 
tion under which one-half of the expense incident to control of 
the disease should be paid by the United States government, 
and one-half by the State. Dr. Melvin also furnished me the 
form used by his department to indicate the value of cattle 
appraised, with the suggestion that it be adopted in Massa- 
chusetts, which was later done. It was further agreed that the 
United States government and the State should each be repre- 
sented by an appraiser, each to pay its representative. The 
advice of Dr. Melvin, the one man who has doubtless had 
greater experience along this line than any other in the country, 
was cheerfully given, and was most helpful. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 33 

On November 11, in order to more thoroughly restrict the 
spread of this disease, the following order was recommended 
and approved: — 

Order No. 15. 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 

Department op Animal Industry, 

State House, Boston, Nov. 11, 1914. 

To All Persons whom it may concern: — ■ 

Whereas the disease known as foot-and-mouth disease, which is a con- 
tagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, 
exists among animals in this Commonwealth, and whereas it has become 
necessary to adopt measures for the prevention of the spread of said con- 
tagious disease, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 
of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and addition 
thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the 
following order and regulation : — 

1. No poultry, pigeons or other farm birds are to be shipped or trans- 
ported by railroad, boat or other conveyance, or moved in any manner 
upon the public highways or byways within this Commonwealth, except 
by permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

2. The above referred to live stock is not to be conveyed by any trans- 
portation company from States under federal quarantine. 

This order shall take effect upon its approval. 

This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of 
animals in the Commonwealth, and by general distiibution. 

Fred Freeland Walker, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 
Approved in Council, Nov. 11, 1914. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Execu live Secretary . 

The work of appraisal began November 13 with, the herd of 
L. H. Taylor of North Amherst, and has gone forward most 
satisfactorily as occasion required. The United States govern- 
ment was represented by Otis IT. Forbush of Acton, and the 
State by Myron T. Carrigan of Concord, acknowledged experts 
as to the value of neat stock. The necessary slaughtering has 
been done under the direction of the department, and not a 
complaint has been filed at the office by owners of stock thus 
disposed of or agents of humane societies. The total appraisal 
of live stock killed up to and including November 30 is 



34 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

$68,566.25, representing 891 cattle, 276 swine, 1,694 fowl, 2 
sheep and 1 goat. 

The relations between the Federal and State forces have been 
most harmonious, and, in so far as it was possible, the two 
organizations have worked as one. As evidence of the cordial 
relations existing between the nation and the State in this 
work, the following portion of a letter has a place here. 

Dr. J. R. Mohler, acting chief of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry at Washington, in a letter addressed to the Commis- 
sioner of Animal Industry dated November 6, writes as fol- 
lows : — 

The Bureau is glad that it has you to look after the work in Massa- 
chusetts, as your training and judgment are considered a valuable asset 
for success through efficient co-operation. 

At the date of this report the disease is well in hand, and 
there is no doubt of its early eradication. The action of the 
State department was prompt and effective. Two days before 
notice from the United States department was received, and 
one day before the quarantine was established in the Chicago 
stockyards, the State of Massachusetts was under the strongest 
kind of quarantine restrictions. The work of eradication is 
being pushed with vigor. Each owner of appraised cattle has 
given a written acceptance of the appraised value of the stock 
killed in the form prescribed by the United States department, 
and owners will doubtless submit their several claims to the 
consideration of your honorable body during the session; and 
I recommend that your honorable body, in accordance with a 
plan submitted by the United States Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try and approved by the honorable Executive Council of this 
Commonwealth, make an appropriation sufficient to reimburse 
owners of cattle and property destroyed on account of foot- 
and-mouth disease, to the extent of 50 per cent, of the ap- 
praised value of the same. 

Statistics in connection with the control and eradication of 
this disease, up to and including Nov. 30, 1914, are given 
below. They show the towns, in alphabetical order, in which 
the disease has been found, the number of herds in those 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



35 



towns, the number of animals and fowl appraised, the amount 
of appraisal, the date on which positive cases of the disease 
were reported by agents of the department and the date of 
killing. 



Statistics on Foot-and-mouth Disease for Year ending Nov. 30, 1914- 



Town. 


Date 
reported 
positive. 


Date of 
Killing. 


Cattle. 


Swine. 


Fowl. 


Sheep. 


Goats. 


Appraisal. 


Amherst, 


Nov. 5 


Nov. 14 


19 


6 


89 


- 


- 


$1,895 00 


Amherst, 


Nov. 5 


Nov. 13 


8 


- 


35 


- 


- 


621 50 


Ashland, . 


Nov. 13 


Nov. 27 


26 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,790 00 


Attleboro, 


Nov. 6 


Nov. 18 


21 


2 


107 


' - 


- 


1,550 00 


Auburn, . 


Nov. 12 


Nov. 25 


22 


2 


- 


- 




1,600 00 


Bellingham, 


Nov. 10 


Nov. 18 


17 


- 


70 


- 


- 


1,120 00 


Bellingham, 


Nov. 10 


Nov. 17 


8 


3 


100 


- 


- 


715 00 


Belmont, 


Nov. 8 


Nov. 19 


8 


- 


4 


- 


- 


402 00 


Boston, 


Nov. 12 


Nov. 20 


43 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3,300 00 


Brockton, 


Nov. 12 


Nov. -27 


6 


- 


53 


- 


- 


516 25 


Chicopee, 


Nov. 10 


Nov. 16 


2 


- 


60 


- 


- 


226 00 


Danvers, . 


Nov. 13 


Nov. 28 


8 


- 


33 


- 


- 


495 00 


Dracut, . 


Nov. 13 


Nov. 26 


87 


130 


34 


- 


- 


8,364 00 


Grafton, . 


Nov. 16 


Nov. 23 


12 


8 


36 


- 


- 


820 00 


Grafton, . 


Nov. 10 


Nov. 22 


18 


- 


70 


- 


- 


1,300 00 


Granby, . 


Nov. 8 


Nov. 16 


39 


- 


175 


- 


- 


3,157 50 


Granby, . 


Nov. 17 


Dec. 3 


26 


- 


50 




- 


1,890 00 


Hingham, 


Nov. 14 


Nov. 30 


142 


6 


11 


- 


- 


10,361 00 


Hingham, 


Nov. 18 


Nov. 30 


9 


16 


- 


- 


- 


691 00 


Lynn, 


Nov. 14 


Nov. 28 


16 


2 


- 




- 


921 00 


Maynard, 


Nov. 14 


Nov. 27 


11 


- 


50 


- 


- 


650 00 


Medford, . 


Nov. 20 


Dec. 2 


28 


5 


30 


- 


- 


1,535 00 


Mendon, . 


Nov. 5 


Nov. 17 


9 


2 


- 


- 


- 


585 00 


Mendon, . 


Nov. 18 


Nov. 28 


13 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1,000 00 


North Attleborough, 


Nov. 21 


Dec. 3 


6 


2 


- 


- 


- 


325 00 


Shrewsbury, 


Nov. 22 


Nov. 25 


10 


3 


- 


- 


- 


705 0(1 


Stoneham, 


Nov. 19 


Dec. 1 


10 


- 


28 


- 


- 


(II.-) Ill) 


Sudbury, 


Nov. 30 


Dec. 5 


20 


5 


38 


- 


- 


L.22B (») 


Swansea, . 


Nov. 17 


/Nov. 22 
I Nov. 23 


1 56 


- 


- 


- 


- 


■1,750 00 


Swansea, . 


Nov. 11 


Nov. 25 


24 


44 


250 


- 


- 


2,200 00 


Swansea, . 


Nov. 17 


Nov. 23 


21 


- 


125 


- 


- 


1, '.)()() 00 


Watertown, 


Nov. 21 


Dec. 3 


6 


- 


30 


- 


- 


525 00 



36 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan . 



Statistics on Foot-and-mouth Disease for Year ending Nov. 30, 1914 — Con. 



Town. 


Date 
reported 
positive. 


Date of 
Killing. 

• 


Cattle. 


Swine. 


Fowl. 


Sheep. 


Goats. 


Appraisal. 


West Boylston, 

West Boylston, 

Westport, 

Worcester, 

Worcester, 

Worcester, 




Nov. 14 
Nov. 15 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 27 
Nov. 11 
Nov. 23 


Nov. 24 
Dec. 2 
Nov. 23 

Dec. 4 

(Nov. 21 
\Nov. 22 

Dec. 2 


6 
23 
16 
13 
} 65 
17 


1 
31 

8 


2 
150 

64 


2 


1 


$300 00 
1,670 00 
2,000 00 
1,130 00 
3,900 00 
1,516 00 


Totals, i . 


- 


- 


891 


276 


1,694 


2 


1 


$68,566 25 



1 From November 5 to November 30, inclusive, 600 herds were inspected by agents of the 
department. 

Miscellaneous Diseases. 

The Department of Animal Industry is called upon during 
the year to deal with other diseases of a contagious nature, in 
addition to rabies, glanders, bovine tuberculosis, hog cholera 
and foot-and-mouth disease. Among them are actinomycosis, 
mange, symptomatic anthrax or blackleg, anthrax, Texas fever, 
and tuberculosis in other animals than cattle. 

Eleven cases of actinomycosis have been reported; 9 of these 
animals were slaughtered, and 2 were found not to have the 
disease. 

There has been a further decrease in the number of animals 
reported as suffering from mange. Twenty places where mange 
was supposed to exist were reported, 3 of which were found to 
be free from it. At the remaining 17 places 303 head of cattle 
and 1 horse were found to be affected. 

The application of a mixture of engine oil, phenol, kerosene 
and sulphur has apparently proved most efficacious in treating 
this trouble, and has been recommended, with excellent results, 
to owners of diseased animals. 

The protective inoculation of young cattle where symptomatic 
anthrax or blackleg has occurred has been continued where 
owners requested, and has been done under the direction of 
Dr. James B. Paige of the Amherst Agricultural College, with 
the assistance of his brother, Dr. Henry E. Paige, an agent of 
this department. Reports have been received from 85 owners, 
and 633 head of cattle have been inoculated. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 37 

Outbreaks of anthrax have been reported at 10 farms, at 2 
of which it was found upon investigation not to have occurred; 
at the 8 remaining farms, 46 sheep, 6 horses and 132 head of 
cattle were inoculated. 

In addition to the above diseases outbreaks have been re- 
ported from various sections of the State from time to time, 
which upon investigation have proven to be foot-rot, distemper, 
food poisoning, etc., diseases not recognized under the law as 
contagious. 

Financial Statement. 

At the close of the last fiscal year, Nov. 30, 1913, there was 
on hand, as per the second annual report : — 

Balance of appropriation for salaries and 

expenses for 1913, . . . 
Balance of appropriation for general work 

of the department for 1913, .... 

Appropriation for salaries and expenses of 
1914, chapter 63, Acts of 1914, . 

Transferred by State Auditor from emer- 
gency fund, . 

Appropriation for general work of the depart- 
ment, chapter 94, Acts of 1914, . 

Total to be accounted for, .... 

Expended during the year : — 
For 1,050 head of cattle condemned and 

killed during the -years 1913 and 1914, 

paid for in 1914, $33,404 30 

For killing and burial, quarantine claims and 

arbitration expenses, 1,046 19 

$34,450 49 



$90 94 




35,946 37 






$36,037 31 




$11,000 00 




200 18 




160,000 00 






171,200 18 






.$207,237 49 



For services of agents (exclusive of glanders 

work), accounts of 1913 and 1914, . . $26,373 88 

For expenses of agents (exclusive of glanders 
work), accounts of 1913 and 1914, . . 13,350 56 

For expenses of quarantine stations, . . 6,654 83 

For expenses of glanders work, including 
services and expenses of agents, laboratory 
work and killing and burial, .... 47,2(53 60 l 

1 Of this amount, $36,936.50 has been paid for 696 horses condemned i<>r glanders during tho 
year. 



38 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 

For laboratory expenses (exclusive of glanders 

work), . . 

For implements, ear tags, thermometers, etc., 
For salary of the head of the department, 

For salary of clerk, 

For salaries of assistant clerks and- stenog- 
raphers, 

For printing, postage, stationery, etc., 

For expenses of the head of the department, 



Total expenditures, .... 
Balance from all accounts, Nov. 30, 1914, 

Total as above, 



This balance is made up from the following items : — 

Balance of appropriation for salaries and expenses, 1913, . $90 94 
Balance of appropriation for general work of the depart- 
ment, 1913, 35,946 37 

Balance of appropriation for general .work of the depart- 
ment, available for unsettled accounts of 1914, . . 23,875 19 



RY. 


[Jan. 1915. 


$3,509 94 




4,415 91 




3,500 00 




1,279 84 




3,125 84 




2,919 20 




480 84 






$112,874 50 






$147,324 99 




59,912 50 




$207,237 49 



$59,912 50 



The average price paid for condemned cattle for the year was 
$31.81. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of 
hides and carcasses of condemned animals, sale of ear tags, 
testing cattle for nonresident owners, etc., $7,738.37. 

Claims for 141 head of cattle condemned and killed as tuber- 
culous during the year remain unsettled, to be paid for on proof 
of claims, the appraised value of which amounts to $4,450.70. 

Claims for 105 horses condemned and killed during the year 
because affected with glanders remain unsettled, to be paid for 
on proof of claims, the allowance for which under the law will 
amount to $5,041.50. 

Respectfully submitted, 

FRED FREELAND WALKER, 

Commissioner of Animal Industry. 



Public Document 



No. 98 



FOUKTH ANNUAL EEPOET 



OF THE 



Commissioner of Animal Industby. 



1915. 



For the Year ending November 30, 1915. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 

32 DERNE STREET. 

1916. 



aiaoNWt. 



Approved by 
The State Board, of Publication. 



©t)£ ^ommontDmltl) of Jttct00acl)n0£tt0, 



Department of An:mal Industry, 
Boston, Dec. 1, 1915. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives: — ■ 

In accordance with the provisions of section 4, chapter 608, 
Acts of 1912, which act is entitled "An Act to abolish the 
Cattle Bureau of the State Board of Agriculture, and to create 
a Department of Animal Industry," I have the honor to present 
to the General Court the fourth annual report of the work 
accomplished by this department for the fiscal year ending 
Nov. 30, 1915. 

The Department of Animal Industry is charged with the 
duty of inspection and examination of animals, the quarantine 
and killing of animals affected with, or which have been ex- 
posed to, contagious disease, the burial or other disposal of 
their carcasses, and the cleansing and disinfection of districts, 
buildings or places where such contagion exists or has existed. 
Proper attention to these duties requires constant activity on 
the part of a large number of persons who by proper education 
and training are specially fitted for this work. 

The control and eradication of contagious diseases' among 
live stock is an important economic factor in the prosperity of 
the Commonwealth. The basis of prosperity of the people of 
any country is its agriculture. Successful agriculture cannot 
be accomplished unless the live-stock interests are conserved in 
the highest degree. Conservation of live stock is dependent 
largely upon the prevention of disease, and therefore the 
functions of the Department of Animal Industry must be con- 
sidered as intimately related to the prosperity of the whole 
people. 

The year just brought to a close has been one in which this 
department has been called upon for a full exercise of its duties. 
Foot-and-mouth disease, a serious affection among cattle, sheep 
and swine, has prevailed in many portions of the State and 
country, and for a time, on account of its widespread distribu- 
tion, threatened to be fastened upon our live stock as a perma- 
nent plague. Owing, however, to early recognition of the 



4 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

threatened danger, and the prompt measures which were taken 
to avert it, we are now able to say that the prevalence of this 
great plague within our borders has been proven to be tempo- 
rary only. Foot-and-mouth disease does not now exist in the 
State of Massachusetts, and has been eradicated from all 
portions of the country except a small part of the State of 
Illinois; and, in accordance with the history of former out- 
breaks of this disease, and also on account of the constant care 
and watchfulness of all owners, veterinarians and live-stock 
officials, a recurrence of it in the near future should not be 
apprehended. 

The department has been actively engaged in the control 
and eradication of tuberculosis, hemorrhagic septicemia, anthrax 
and anthracoid diseases among bovine animals, glanders affect- 
ing horses, mules and asses, rabies affecting dogs and other 
animals, hog cholera among swine, and scabies affecting sheep. 
Prompt investigation and effective executive work as circum- 
stances required have limited, controlled or eradicated these 
diseases in a satisfactory degree. The activities of the depart- 
ment must be continued, however, and increased in every 
direction if the value of its work as a factor in the prosperity 
and well-being of the people of the Commonwealth is to be 
maintained. 

Preventable disease of live stock plays a large part in keeping 
up the high cost of living by limiting the food supply. If 
tuberculosis among cattle and cholera among swine (taking 
these diseases as examples) were entirely stamped out, all the 
carcasses now being destroyed would be added to the food 
supply, together with many others whose production the 
saving of these would make possible. The eradication of 
preventable animal diseases would not only add perceptibly to 
the food supply, but would probably save many human lives. 
Beyond all question progress can be steadily made in this 
direction, and the supply of wholesome food products in this 
country thereby increased, if proper means for safeguarding and 
husbanding our resources are organized. 

Tuberculosis is the chief cause of the condemnation of food 
animals in the country, and hog cholera is responsible for the 
next largest loss. The Department of Animal Industry is 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 5 

actively engaged in the elimination of tuberculous animals, 
within the limitations prescribed by law, and the prevention of 
hog cholera among swine is fast becoming one of the most 
important branches of its work. 

Next to the control and eradication of preventable disease, 
the breeding and development of pure-blooded or "seed" 
animals, and their maintenance at a high standard of health 
and productivity, are very great factors in the conservation 
and increase of the live-stock interests of the Commonwealth, and 
are now receiving marked attention from all people interested 
in the progressive development of our agricultural resources. 

A spirit of co-operation has been shown in nearly all instances 
by the live-stock owners with whom the department by its 
agents has had to come into intimate relation during the 
prosecution of its work. During the prevalence of foot-and- 
mouth disease it was necessary, as a measure for the control 
and eradication of that plague, to impose and enforce quaran- 
tine restrictions which in many instances caused great in- 
convenience and severe monetary loss to cattle owners and 
other citizens. These restrictions were very irksome, and by 
an unthinking person might be deemed unreasonable, but a 
remarkable spirit of reliance upon the authorities charged with 
the duty of suppression of this disease has been shown, and the 
public as a whole has been very willing to comply with all 
regulations imposed when once becoming fully informed as to 
their necessity. 

Rabies. 

Below is a full report of the work of this department in the 
control and eradication of rabies. 

Rabies is essentially a disease of dogs, although all species 
of warm-blooded animals are susceptible, and cases have been 
reported in every species of domestic animals, in a large number 
of wild animals and in man. The disease causes a certain 
amount of monetary loss every year among horses, cattle, slice]) 
and hogs. However, in the control of this disease we ordinarily 
need to consider but one source of its spread, — the dog, and 
a certain portion of the canine inhabitants requires the most 
specific consideration, namely, the homeless, ownerless dog. 
Because of the liability of rabies to become rapidly spread, no 



6 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

community in which it exists can afford to relax for a moment 
such measures as it finds itself able to adopt for its control. 

The control of rabies is essentially the control of rabid dogs. 
This fact alone renders the control and eradication of this 
disease relatively simple compared with that of most other 
infectious diseases of animals, for the reason that dogs enter 
less into commerce than horses or the food-producing animals, 
and their market value is on the average much less. Further- 
more, they endure restraint well, and can be kept in con- 
finement at a relatively low expense as compared with the 
larger animals. 

We find that the ownerless, homeless dog is more often the 
spreader of this disease than is the animal which has a home 
and proper care and attention. The tramp animal may become 
affected with rabies and act as a spreader of the infection before 
he is observed to be diseased, and even then it often happens 
that, on account of no one being specially interested in his 
welfare, attention of the proper official is not directed to him. 
Were the laws requiring all dogs to be licensed strictly enforced 
this class of animals would not exist long, and thereby a very 
great factor in the dissemination of this disease would be 
eliminated. 

Recent investigations have been pursued in the search of a 
means of eradication of rabies by the immunizing of dogs 
against the disease. It is too early to say whether or not this 
is practicable or even possible, but should further investigation 
substantiate some of the promises of preliminary work, it would 
bring to our aid additional means of control which might be 
valuable. 

Although no unusual prevalence of rabies has existed during 
the year just closed, its control is at all times a very important 
matter from the standpoint of the public health. No doubt 
very much more might be accomplished in this direction, as 
well as in the control of other contagious diseases of animals, 
if the laws of the different States relating thereto were uniform, 
so that combined effort in the same line of action might be 
undertaken simultaneously by the different States. It very 
often happens that in the pursuit of a case of rabies the trail 
leads across the line into another State, and the jurisdiction of 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 7 

our own State officials ceases at what is, perhaps, a critical 
point in control and eradication of this disease. 

Following is a general outline of the department's methods in 
this work under the present regulations : — 

Upon report being made to the Department of Animal 
Industry that a person has been bitten by a dog, the inspector 
of animals of the town or city in which it occurs is ordered to 
make an examination of the animal, and, if it appears to be 
healthy, to have it restrained for a period of ten days for the 
purpose of observation, at the end of which period, if no 
symptoms of rabies have developed, the animal may be re- 
leased. In case a person is bitten by a dog which upon exami- 
nation by the inspector of animals, or any other person, shows 
evidence of being affected with rabies, this animal is 
immediately placed in quarantine. If it is subsequently killed 
or dies in quarantine its head is immediately sent to the de- 
partment's office and a laboratory examination of the brain is 
made. Information as to the laboratory diagnosis is promptly 
communicated to the person or persons who have been bitten. 
The State Department of Health is given the information 
received in every case of dog bite, whether the bite has been 
inflicted by an animal suspected of rabies or not. The Depart- 
ment of Animal Industry also orders the local inspector of 
animals to ascertain not only the names of all persons who have 
been bitten by dogs suspected of rabies, but also to find out 
if other dogs have been bitten, and if so to place the same in 
quarantine, and they are held in quarantine for a period of at 
least ninety days. All dogs which are known to have been in 
contact with a rabid animal, whether or not it appears that 
they have been bitten by it, are also placed in quarantine for 
the same period. 

If any unusual number of cases of rabies is found in any town 
or city, the selectmen or the mayor or boards of aldermen are 
asked or advised to issue a restraining order, under the pro- 
visions of section 158 of chapter 102 of the Revised Laws. 
Such an order obliges all dog owners to confine their animals 
to their own premises for a certain period, or take them there- 
from only on leash. This restraining order is much more 
effective in the local control of an outbreak than is an order 



8 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



which compels owners to only muzzle the animals but not 
restrain them, as a muzzled animal let loose may in some way 
get the muzzle off and then bite other animals or people. A 
muzzled dog at large, therefore, may become much more 
dangerous than an unmuzzled one which is at all times confined 
upon owner's premises or taken therefrom only on leash. Dogs 
found running at large while a restraining order issued by town 
or city authorities is in force may be killed on the issuance of a 
warrant for the same to a police officer. In thirteen cities and 
towns of the Commonwealth general restraining orders have 
been issued for periods varying from thirty to ninety days. 
The periods covered by all these orders have now expired. 

The Department of Animal Industry has a force of district 
agents located in different parts of the State, at all times in the 
service and pay of the Commonwealth. These agents, most of 
whom are veterinarians, together with the local inspectors of 
animals, of whom there is one or more in every city and town 
of the State, completes an organization by which systematic 
local control of an outbreak of this disease can generally be 
accomplished within a reasonably short time. The department 
is assisted at every point by the earnest co-operation on the 
part of private veterinarians, and by the various societies now 
so active in preventing abuse and relieving suffering of dumb 
animals. 

The following table shows the number of animals which 
have been under observation by the department on account of 
the prevalence of rabies during the year ending Nov. 30, 
1915: — 





73 

O 

Q 


© 

o 


03 

o 


© 

03 
U 

o 

w 


6 
a 


a> 

m 


CO 

'eS 
-p 
O 

Eh 


Killed or died with rabies (furious, 162; dumb, 52), 

Killed or died with suspicious symptoms of rabies, but 
not positive cases. 

Killed by owners or died in quarantine, not proven rabid, 
but exposed to the disease. 

Killed or died with no suspicious symptoms, not, how- 
ever, declared negative. 

Still in quarantine (ten days, 1; ninety days, 67), . 

Not located or escaped quarantine (suspicious of rabies, 
4; not suspicious of rabies, 9). 


214 
27 
46 
80 

325 
68 
13 


4 
1 

2 


1 

3 
1 
5 

1 


4 
1 

1 


1 

9 


2 
5 


226 
27 
51 
81 

344 
71 
14 
















814 



1916.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 98. 



9 



The brains of 120 dogs, 2 cows, 1 horse and 3 cats were 
examined at the laboratory of the Harvard Medical School 
during the year, and the results were as follows : — 



Dogs. 



Cattle. Horses 



Cats 



Positive, 

Negative, 



84 
36 



The brains of 5 dogs and 1 horse were received too de- 
composed to be examined. 

During the year 139 persons have been bitten by rabid 
animals, and in each case the State Department of Health has 
been notified. 

Out of the positive cases of rabies occurring during 1915, 
42 animals were ownerless, or the owners were unknown. 

For purposes of comparison the following figures are given 
showing the number of positive cases of rabies occurring each 
year for the past eleven years : — 



1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 



98 
293 
662 
454 
126 

51 
121 

90 
205 
250 
226 



Glanders. 
For many years the prevalence of glanders among the horses 
of the Commonwealth has been widespread. In no year during 
the last seventeen have there been less than 400 cases recorded, 
and in the year 1913 there were 1,084 horses killed on account 
of being affected with this disease. The average yearly record 
of the past seventeen years being 748 cases, the monetary loss 
to citizens, based on a low valuation of $100 per animal, 
approximates the amount of $75,000 yearly. The control and 
eradication of this disease is therefore an economic question of 
no small importance. The problems connected with its suppres- 
sion are many and difficult of solution, and necessarily the 



10 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



subject of continual careful consideration on the part of the 
head of the department. From our experience during the past 
year it is reasonable to assume that intelligent, systematic 
effort constantly made by trained men will effect still greater 
reduction in the number of cases. 

The records for the year ending Nov. 30, 1915, show that 
during that year there has been a smaller number of cases of 
this disease than at any time since the year 1898. Following is 
a table giving the number of cases of this disease by separate 
years for the entire period mentioned. In this table the cases 
existing in the city of Boston are shown separately. Boston 
always having been the storm center of this disease, special 
tabulation of the number of cases in that city is made in order 
that its relative importance to other sections of the State may 
be studied. 

Number of Cases. 



Yeah* 



Cases. 



In Boston. 



In Other 
Places. 



Totals. 



1898, 
1899, 
1900, 
1901, 
1902, 
1903, 
1904, 
1905, 
1906, 
1907, 
1908, 
1909, 
1910, 
1911, 
1912, 
1913, 
1914, 
1915, 



137 
159 

192 
197 
155 
250 
254 
210 
194 
308 
389 
278 
314 
387 
395 
556 
355 
152 



250 
384 
507 
548 
580 
610 
555 
414 
376 
403 
552 
406 
362 
565 
446 
528 
495 
250 



387 
543 
699 
745 
735 
860 
809 
624 
570 
711 
941 
684 
676 
952 
841 
1,084 
850 
402 



As shown by the above table, there has been during the year 
just closed a decrease of 57 per cent, from the previous year 
in the number of cases found in the city of Boston, and the 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 11 

decrease in the number of cases in other portions of the State 
has been 49.4 per cent. Taken together, the decrease for the 
whole State has been 52.7 per cent. 

From the showing of the figures for the past year it would 
seem as if it could reasonably be expected that this disease 
might in time be entirely eradicated, or at least so controlled 
that its existence would not be of such serious moment as 
formerly, and that by prompt destruction of animals showing 
clinical symptoms of the disease, followed by diagnostic exami- 
nation of all animals associated with them in conditions of 
work or stabling, still further reduction in the number of cases 
must be possible. 

A very important factor in the success of our method of 
control has been the prompt killing of animals showing clinical 
symptoms. This has been promptly followed by disinfection 
of premises where they were stabled, of the blacksmith shops 
where they were shod, and of the watering troughs where they 
had been in the habit of drinking. 

To effectively aid in the complete disinfection of premises 
from which diseased animals have been removed owners have 
been requested to tear out mangers, loose boarding and such 
portions of the stalls as the animals have come in close contact 
with, or upon which may have been deposited any discharges 
from their respiratory passages. We have required that this 
disinfection be properly accomplished by the owners of premises 
before approving the claims for reimbursement presented by the 
owners of the animals. 

Frequent inspection of the animals on premises where 
glanders has prevailed has been made, so that the spread of the 
infection from the original case might be noted in its early 
stages, and prompt action taken to destroy any new center of 
infection found. This inspection has been repeated from time 
to time with the result that many cases have been found and 
destroyed which otherwise might have escaped notice. 

All animals suspected of being diseased, but which did not 
show clinical symptoms sufficiently well marked to be con- 
demned as positive cases, have been subjected to one or 
more of the tests which are now available for purposes of diag- 
nosis. 

One of these tests is the complement-fixation, or so-called 



12 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



"blood test," made by laboratory experts, and another is the 
ophthalmic-mallein, or so-called "eye test," made by agents of 
this department. Either one or both of these tests are applied 
in doubtful cases, and are of great value for diagnostic purposes. 
By their use early diagnoses of doubtful cases are possible in 
many instances, the result being that many animals are de- 
stroyed much earlier in the progress of the disease than would 
have happened if the diagnoses had depended upon the ex- 
hibition of clinical symptoms alone. It has been proven by 
postmortem examination that both of these tests are accurate 
in a high percentage of cases. 

The ophthalmic test is made by applying a small portion of a 
reliable concentrated mallein within the lower lid of the eye, 
and noting the result at about the sixteenth hour afterwards. 
This test has the advantage of not interfering in any way with 
a blood test which it may be thought desirable to apply later. 

Complement-fixation Test. 

Of 50 horses from which samples of blood had been obtained 
during the years 1913 and 1914, 2 died, 3 have been condemned, 
5 released and 3 held for further observation. Fifty-four 
samples of blood were taken from the remaining 37 horses, of 
which number 31 horses were released, 3 condemned and 3 
were burned to death. 

Six hundred and seventy samples of blood were taken from 
562 horses reported during the year, with the following results : — 



Animals released on first test, 
Released on second test," . 
Released on third test, 
Released on fourth test, . 
Killed by owner after first test, 
Died after first test, . 
Died after second test, 
Condemned on first test, . 
Condemned on second test, 
Condemned on third test, 
Condemned on fourth test, 
Held for further observation, 



317 

46 

6 

3 

3 

11 

2 

141 

20 

3 

2 

8 

562 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 13 

From 3 of the 8 horses still held one sample of blood has 
been obtained; from 3 others two bloods have been obtained, 
and from the remaining 2 horses three bloods have been taken. 

Ophthalmic-mallein Tests. 
Number of tests made during the year, 340 

Tests giving positive results, . ... . . . . . 150 

Tests giving negative results, 147 

Tests giving unsatisfactory results, 43 

340 

Animals which for any reason have been suspected of being 
diseased either as a result of contact with other diseased 
animals or as a result of the different tests, but which have not 
shown sufficient clinical symptoms to warrant condemnation, 
have been quarantined, frequently examined, and in many 
instances allowed to work under certain conditions. We have 
found that in many instances contact animals which are 
apparently in a condition of perfect health have temporarily 
reacted to one of the tests mentioned, and at a later date have 
ceased to react to the same. It has, therefore, not been thought 
justifiable to kill valuable animals which having reacted to 
these tests did not also show clinical symptoms, if the animals 
appeared to be in a condition of health otherwise. These so- 
called temporary reactors have, however, been carefully 
watched, frequent tests have been applied, and in case they 
reacted persistently to either one or both of the tests, de- 
struction of them has been advised. Autopsy has been made 
of condemned animals in every case where there has been any 
inconsistency in the results of the different tests, and in all 
other cases where practicable. 

The use of subcutaneous mallein for the testing of suspected 
animals is not advised by the department, for the reason that 
it may interfere with the correctness of any blood test subse- 
quently made. 

Another factor in the control of glanders has been the closing 
or elimination of public watering troughs. On the outbreak of 
glanders in a town or city, if the number of cases was unusual, 
all public watering troughs in the vicinity have been ordered 



14 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

closed. In every instance where this has been done it has been 
immediately followed by a decrease in the number of cases. 
At the present time public watering troughs are closed in twelve 
cities and towns of the Commonwealth, the additional places 
in which troughs were closed during the past year being 
Chicopee, Holyoke, Marlborough and Hudson. 

The closing of the public drinking places for animals in 
different cities and towns in my opinion limits the spread of 
contagious diseases other than glanders, and the practice of 
drivers and teamsters carrying pails from which to water 
animals is one to be encouraged, not only from the standpoint 
of control of glanders, but also of many other diseases of a 
contagious character. It has been found that in many instances 
teamsters have been very much impressed by the result of this 
practice, and would not desire to go back to the old practice of 
watering at the public troughs, even if the same were again 
opened. 

Another factor in the control of glanders has been the 
activity of the different humane societies engaged in the work 
of taking old and decrepit animals from the streets and 
humanely disposing of them. The Massachusetts Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Boston Workhorse 
Relief Association and the Animal Rescue League have by their 
agents been of material aid to this department in the effort to 
control this disease. Their particular observation of working 
animals of all classes has brought to light many showing 
suspicious symptoms. These have been promptly reported to 
the department, and in many cases found to be diseased. Over- 
worked or disabled animals are predisposed to infection, and 
by removal of the same undoubtedly many cases of this disease 
have been prevented. 

Another factor in the suppression of glanders has been the 
disinfection of blacksmith shops. Following the condemnation 
of an animal affected with this disease a visit is made by one 
of the agents of the department to the blacksmith shop in which 
this particular animal had been shod. Constant inspection of 
such premises by our agents has undoubtedly been a factor in 
securing weekly disinfection by their owners or occupants, and 
in all probability this practice has limited the prevalence of this 
disease to a large degree. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 15 

In the city of Boston 56 blacksmith shops where animals 
condemned on account of glanders were shod have been visited 
by our agents during the year, and instructions given relative 
to disinfection. Of this number, 51 shops have been put in a 
condition satisfactory to the department. 

The statistics of the general work of the department in 
connection with the control and eradication of glanders follow : — 



Cases of horses and mules reported as suspicious, . . . 838 
Cases held over from previous years, 75 



Animals killed or died, found affected with glanders, . 
Animals killed, no lesions found, full value paid by State, 
Animals killed by owners or died before diagnosis, 
Animals released as free from -glanders, .... 
Cases held for further observation, . . . ...-.' 



402 
2 

33 
458 

18 



913 



913 



Of the 402 positive cases of glanders, 152 cases were located 
in Boston. 

Three hundred and eighty-nine horses condemned and killed 
on account of glanders and farcy during the past four years 
have been paid for during 1915, the total payments amounting 
to $19,600. 

Interstate Horses. 

The department order which prohibits the importation of 
horses, asses and mules from the States of New York, Connecti- 
cut and Rhode Island, except upon permit, is still in force. 
The number of horses shipped from these States under permit 
has been very much less during the past year than in the 
previous year, due in part to the restrictions on live-stock ship- 
ments imposed on account of foot-and-mouth disease, and 
among the animals so shipped glanders has been very much 
less prevalent, only one horse having been condemned as 
affected with this disease. The statistics in connection with this 
branch of the service follow : — 

Animals brought into State. 

Mules, ....'. 18 

Donkeys, 7 

Horses, 3,654 

3,679 



16 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Disposition of Above Animals. 

Died soon after arrival, 

Condemned as affected with glanders, . 

Tested by agents of the department and released, 

Released on physical examination, ... 



1 
1 

20 
3,657 



3,679 



Section 111 of chapter 75 of the Revised Laws, as amended 
by chapter 243 of the Acts of 1907, requires rendering com- 
panies to report to this department cases of glanders or farcy 
found by them, and the information thus furnished is of con- 
siderable value in bringing to the attention of the department 
cases of the disease which otherwise would not be known. A 
table of reports of rendering companies follows : — 



Reports of Rendering Companies. 




Rendering Companies. 


Number of 
Reports. 


Number of 
Cases. 


Number 

not 

previously 

reported. 


W. H. Abbott, Holyoke 


19 


38 


1 


C. S. Bard, Haverhill, 






1 


1 


- 








4 


5 


- » 


Home Soap Company, Millbury, 






12 


18 


- 








2 


2 


- 


Lowell Rendering Company, Lowell, 






1 


1 


- 


A. G. Markham & Co., Springfield, 






2 


2 


- 


James E. McGovern, Andover, 






1 


1 


- 








24 


44 


- 


William H. Nankervis, Marlborough, 






10 


18 


2 


New Bedford Extractor Company, . 






9 


11 


- 


New England Rendering Company, Brighton, 


14 


20 


3 


Parmenter & Polsey Fertilizer Company, Peabody 


5 


7 


- 


N. Roy, Jr., Fall River 


21 


29 


3 


Sherborn Rendering Company 


3 


3 


- 


Springfield Rendering Company, Springfield, 


2 


2 


- 


N. Ward Company, South Boston, .... 


48 


136 


1 


Whitman & Pratt Rendering Company, ■ Nortt 

Chelmsford. 
S. Winter Company, Brockton, 


L 1 

9 


1 
11 


- 


Worcester Rendering Company, 


1 


1 


1 








189 


351 


11 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 17 



FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE. 

Owing to its extremely infectious nature, foot-and-mouth 
disease when once started in a community spreads with great 
rapidity. Investigation as to the means by which this disease 
was spread during the recent outbreak in this Commonwealth 
disclosed the fact that in many instances herds were infected by 
germs carried by persons. There are many cases on record 
where the infection was taken from one farm to another by 
cattle owners or some members of their household who, from 
curiosity or for other reasons, visited infected premises, or where 
persons from infected premises visited other premises where 
animals were confined. 

If this disease was allowed to spread promiscuously over the 
country, it is natural to assume that the majority or practically 
all the animals in the country would become affected, and, 
although the death rate is not large, animals attacked by the 
disease are injured to a greater or less extent, and as the disease 
continues to spread, strains of virus passing through successive 
herds sometimes result in a much more virulent form of the 
disease, and the death rate may reach as high as 40 or 50 per 
cent, of animals attacked. Therefore, if it should become 
generally prevalent, the loss sustained would aggregate an 
immense sum. 

On account of permanent immunity not being conferred upon 
animals attacked by this disease, and the fact that such 
animals having recovered from one attack may again be 
attacked during future outbreaks, or may even reinfect them- 
selves by means of germs carried upon their own bodies, it is 
necessary to adopt such methods as will insure complete 
eradication. 

A superficial study of this question should convince the most 
skeptical of the necessity of eradicating the disease before it 
becomes established at the point where eradication is im- 
possible, and the method destined to secure that result is 
quarantine, with slaughter of infected or exposed animals. 
This has been the method pursued not only in the State of 
Massachusetts, but in every other State where the disease has 
appeared, and is the one which has been used in all countries 
which have accomplished complete eradication. 



18 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

The method of "quarantine followed by slaughter of infected 
or exposed animals" is the one which has been pursued in all 
previous outbreaks in this State and country, and the success 
which that method has attained heretofore was undoubtedly 
the chief reason for the pursuance of the same method by 
national and State governments during the recent outbreak. 

Although one large herd of cattle in Chicago was saved from 
slaughter on account of conditions making possible such 
methods of quarantine as would prevent spread of the disease, 
such conditions would be absolutely impossible on an average 
farm, and far too costly to employ with ordinary cattle. 

This case offers no criterion by which the effectiveness of this 
method may be judged. The experience of European countries 
with farm quarantines is that the disease invariably spreads 
and gains a lasting foothold. The herd referred to, which was 
held in close quarantine in Chicago for a period of seven 
months, consisted of over 700 valuable pure-bred cattle. Con- 
ditions for enforcing strict quarantine were such that there 
was no possible chance for the disease to be carried from the 
premises. These conditions would be difficult to duplicate, and 
probably impossible to maintain, on the average farm. In the 
case of the herd mentioned the expense per head amounted to 
several times the average value of an ordinary farm animal. 

The beginning of the fiscal year, Dec. 1, 1914, found this 
department still engaged in a struggle for the control of foot- 
and-mouth disease. At that time the disease had appeared on 
38 premises in 27 towns, and during the month of December, 
12 more premises had become infected in 9 different towns. 
On assuming office on Jan. 2, 1915, I therefore found that since 
the beginning of the outbreak, namely, Nov. 6, 1914, and 
during the two months of its prevalence, the disease had 
appeared on 50 premises in 36 different towns of the Common- 
wealth. All of the diseased animals and those which had been 
exposed to the infection had been killed and buried, and disin- 
fection of premises, under the immediate supervision of the 
United States Bureau of Animal Industry, was going on. 

Much criticism had been expressed on the part of owners of 
diseased cattle to the effect that the department was not, 
apparently, prepared to dispose of diseased animals promptly 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 19 

after positive diagnosis of the disease had been made, as, after 
condemnation, killing and burial had been delayed for periods 
varying from three days to, in some instances, seventeen days, 
the average elapsed time between positive diagnosis and killing 
and burial being nine and one-half days. In the meantime the 
animals remained active centers of infection from which the 
disease might be spread in various ways. Therefore special 
effort has since been made, on the occasion of an outbreak, to 
kill and bury the diseased and exposed animals as promptly as 
possible, and to disinfect premises on which the disease existed, 
with the result that, in cases that have occurred since Jan. 1, 
1915, the average time which has elapsed between date of 
positive diagnosis and date of burial of animals has been less 
than five days. 

Following two cases occurring on Jan. 1 and Jan. 4, 1915, a 
period of twenty-five days elapsed during which no new cases 
were found. 

On Feb. 6, 1915, there started in the city of Waltham an 
outbreak which involved 15 premises in the towns of Waltham, 
Watertown, Weston, Lexington, Arlington and Everett before 
it was controlled. 

The first premises infected in this district were those of 
J. W. Keenan in Waltham, and within a very few days after 
the outbreak of the disease at that point it was found to have 
spread to other premises in this district. Persons traveling 
from one farm to another for various purposes were found to 
be the means by which the disease was carried. In no instance 
had cattle, sheep or swine been the medium by which the 
disease had been transferred from one place to another. 

A special investigation was made (as is done in all cases) of 
the source of this outbreak which had appeared on the farm 
of said J. W. Keenan. It was found that J. W. Keenan did 
not live at his farm in Waltham, but resided with his nephew, 
Thomas Keenan, in Brighton, and went back and forth daily 
from the Brighton premises to his farm in Waltham, using an 
automobile for conveyance. Further inquiry at the premises of 
the nephew, Thomas Keenan in Brighton, disclosed the fact that 
in his opinion foot-and-mouth disease had existed on his prem- 
ises early in the outbreak in Massachusetts, and at which 



20 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

time J. W. Keenan of Waltham was living thereon. Follow- 
ing this line of investigation still further, it was found that 
animals which Thomas Keenan had on his premises in Brighton 
at that time were part of a herd of animals originally owned 
by George L. Henry of Amherst, at whose farm the first cases 
of foot-and-mouth disease in Massachusetts were found. The 
connection is, therefore, quite closely established between the 
original outbreak in Massachusetts and the so-called secondary 
outbreak in Waltham, as follows : — 

Mr. George L. Henry shipped cows to Brighton weekly, and 
what he did not sell on any particular market day he sent to 
the premises of Thomas Keenan in Brighton, to be kept until 
the following week. A portion of the animals originally ex- 
posed to the disease at Mr. Henry's farm, and which were 
shipped to the Brighton stock yards, were the identical ani- 
mals stabled at Thomas Keenan's premises. J. W. Keenan of 
Waltham boarded at this place and went daily from there to 
his farm in Waltham, on which the so-called secondary out- 
break occurred. 

Further investigation disclosed the fact that the disease had 
not been recognized by the department as existing on Thomas 
Keenan's premises, and therefore the animals had not been 
killed, and the premises had not been disinfected. 

Thomas Keenan says that in his opinion his animals had 
foot-and-mouth disease; that he reported them to the Com- 
missioner of Animal Industry; that two of his animals were 
buried by himself on his own premises, and that the other four 
were removed for slaughter to the Brighton Abattoir on a per- 
mit of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

J. W. Keenan of Waltham also used a cow-wagon kept on 
the Brighton premises to transport cattle to and from his farm 
in Waltham. 

A record of these facts is on file with the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry at Washington, D. C, investiga- 
tion in this matter having been made by that department in- 
dependently of that of the Massachusetts department. 

As a result of this investigation by State and Federal de- 
partments it was deemed necessary to put the premises of 
Thomas Keenan, in Brighton, under quarantine, and disinfect 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 21 

the same according to the regular method pursued in all such 
cases. 

We are forced to the conclusion that had the disease been 
recognized when on the premises of Thomas Keenan in Brigh- 
ton, the animals been promptly killed and buried and the prem- 
ises completely disinfected, and the persons thereon restrained 
from going to other places until they had been properly fumi- 
gated and their clothing disinfected, this secondary outbreak 
in Waltham and vicinity would have been prevented. The 
value of animals killed and property destroyed in this section 
amounted to $36,000. 

A secondary infection in Worcester and vicinity also took 
place in the early part of February, also one in Southborough 
and Westborough. An isolated case also occurred in the city of 
Springfield, two animals there being affected, and a case in 
Chicopee. In the towns of Russell and Northampton isolated 
cases occurred, these being the only ones which have occurred 
west of the Connecticut River during this outbreak. 

From one place in Worcester four calves were shipped to 
outside towns, and two days later foot-and-mouth disease was 
found on the premises from which these calves had been 
removed. In following up and inspecting the calves at 
their destination, it was found that in three instances they 
had carried the disease with them, although at the time of 
their leaving the premises where they had been raised the 
disease had not appeared and did not appear until two days 
after their departure. 

This incident shows that foot-and-mouth disease may be 
carried or transmitted and animals become infected therewith 
before clinical symptoms appear in the animals originally dis- 
eased. Early in February the disease was found at two packing 
houses in animals shipped thereto for immediate slaughter. 
These premises were accordingly immediately disinfected, and 
no additional cases have since appeared at those points. 

From March 18 no new cases were found until April 16, 
when the disease appeared in a mild form on a place where it 
had previously existed in December, 1914, and where premises 
were being restocked with trial animals. Although the prem- 
ises had been disinfected and allowed to remain unoccupied 



22 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

for four months, the disease was found in a mild form in the 
restocking animals. These animals were promptly disposed of 
in the regular manner, and no further appearance of the dis- 
ease on those premises has resulted. 

During the prevalence of. foot-and-mouth disease in the 
Commonwealth farm-to-farm inspection has been systemati- 
cally carried on by inspectors of the United States Bureau of 
Animal Industry in co-operation with agents of this depart- 
ment. This inspection is considered absolutely necessary in 
order that any unrecognized or hidden cases may be brought 
to light and promptly disposed of. Many suspected cases of 
infection have been reported from time to time by cattle 
owners and other interested persons, all of which cases have 
been promptly investigated. Careful disinfection of the in- 
spectors engaged in the work of inspection has been insisted 
upon, t and in no instance has it been found that the disease 
has been spread by agents of this department or by the Federal 
inspectors. 

On October 10 the disease in typical form appeared on a 
farm in the town of Leicester. The animals were promptly 
killed and buried and the premises disinfected. It having been 
found that one of these cows had recently gone to a neigh- 
boring farm for breeding purposes, and probably after she was 
infected with the disease, the breeding animal at the second 
farm was promptly killed and buried, and those premises also 
were disinfected, the result being that the disease was confined 
to the original place where it broke out. Very thorough farm- 
to-farm inspection in this vicinity disclosed no additional 
cases, and it must therefore be classed as an isolated case, the 
source of which has not been positively determined. It would 
not be unreasonable to expect that occasionally an isolated 
case may yet be found, for with such an amount of infection 
spread broadcast throughout such a large portion of the State 
there is certainly some danger that it may yet exist and break 
out when circumstances are favorable thereto. 

On Nov, 7, 1914, at the beginning of the outbreak, an order 
of the Commissioner of Animal Industry approved in Council 
on the same date prohibited the movement or transportation 
of neat cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine in all portions 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 23 

of the State. This order, supplemented by certain notices, 
was in force until Jan. 13, 1915, when it was modified so as to 
apply only to cities and towns and certain areas adjacent 
thereto which lay within a three-mile radius of premises upon 
which foot-and-mouth disease had during the previous three 
months been known to exist, and to such other cities and towns 
and areas adjacent thereto in which foot-and-mouth disease 
might subsequently appear. There had been in force also 
during this period certain orders restricting the transportation 
of poultry and other small domestic animals. 

On account of the extreme inconvenience, interference with 
business, and monetary loss which this general quarantine had 
imposed on the citizens of the Commonwealth, and also be- 
cause it was deemed safe to begin to modify the restrictions 
necessary in the first instance to the control of this disease, 
the modification of Jan. 13, 1915, was deemed advisable, and 
thereafter from time to time, as the betterment of conditions 
became apparent, other approved orders and regulations were 
issued, until on July 1 notice was issued that no permits for 
the movement of cattle, sheep and swine would be required 
except to and from premises on which foot-and-mouth disease 
had existed, and in the Brighton district of Boston and the 
city of Watertown. 

On February 1 notice was issued so modifying restrictions 
which had been applied during the quarantine as to allow live 
stock from Maine and Vermont to enter Massachusetts; cattle 
for immediate slaughter could be consigned to establishments 
under Federal inspection without special permit, and to other 
points in the State accompanied by a permit; cattle not for 
immediate slaughter were allowed to be shipped on permit to 
any point except the quarantine stations at Brighton, Water- 
town and Somerville. On May 10 these privileges were made 
applicable also to the State of New Hampshire. 

On May 17 the Brighton Stock Yards, which had remained 
closed to all kinds of traffic since early in November, 1914, 
were allowed to open for the receipt of neat cattle, sheep and 
swine if shipped in disinfected cars and intended for immediate 
slaughter. On July 1 this privilege was extended to the Union 
Stock Yards in Watertown. 



24 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

On August 30 the quarantine stations at Somerville, Brighton 
and Watertown were first opened for the receipt of dairy 
cattle, under condition that the shipments originate in Massa- 
chusetts, Maine, New Hampshire or Vermont, and be subject 
to all regulations which were in force prior to the outbreak of 
foot-and-mouth disease. The order allowing this has been 
continually in force since that date up to the end of the year, 
with the exception of the period from Oct. 5 to Oct. 15, 1915. 
On October 5 a cow suspected of being affected with foot-and- 
mouth disease was received at the Brighton Stock Yards, and 
immediately all other animals on the premises were quaran- 
tined. For the protection of the cattle interests of the State, 
and in order that the infection of foot-and-mouth disease 
might not again be distributed to the many farms to which 
cattle go from this public market, it was deemed necessary 
to hold all the animals at that point until it could be posi- 
tively determined whether or not the suspected animal was a 
case of this disease. After a period of ten days had elapsed 
from the receipt of this particular cow, and experiments made 
in the mean time to determine whether or not the disease was 
present had proved negative, the special quarantine was lifted 
and the animals that had been held were released. 

Until foot-and-mouth disease disappears entirely from the 
country, and a period of time elapses sufficient to unmistakably 
prove that fact, certain precautions are necessary in order that 
the live-stock interests of the State shall not be jeopardized. 
The department accordingly at the present time requires that 
all cattle shipped from any State except the three New England 
States mentioned shall remain in quarantine for a period of at 
least fifteen days after arrival, so that if the infection has been 
picked up en route to this State clinical symptoms of it will be 
likely to be discovered before the animals are released and 
distributed to other farms. 

The Legislature of 1915 having appropriated $150,000 for the 
purpose of reimbursing owners of cattle killed and property 
destroyed, and ownership statements and claims having been 
filed in proper form, claims for reimbursement were accordingly 
approved, and payment was begun on May 6, 1915. All such 
claims have been settled and releases obtained from the owners. 



1916] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 25 

It having been decided by the Attorney-General of the Com- 
monwealth that quarantine expenses on account of animals 
being held in quarantine on their owner's premises for a longer 
period than ten days might be paid, such claims if filed in 
proper form and proven just will be forwarded for payment 
early in the coming year. 

Following, in chronological order, are all the important 
orders and notices relating to the control and eradication of 
foot-and-mouth disease issued during the year ending Nov. 30, 

1915: — 

Order No. 16. 

Dec. 2, 1914. 
To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

Order No. 15 is hereby revoked. 

Whereas the disease known as foot-and-mouth disease, which is a 
contagious disease and is so recognized under the laws of this Common- 
wealth, exists among animals in this Commonwealth, and whereas it 
has become necessary to adopt measures for the prevention of the spread 
of said contagious disease, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 
of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition 
thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make 
the following order and regulation : — 

No live poultry, pigeons or other farm birds are to be shipped or trans- 
ported by railroad, boat or other conveyance, or moved in any manner 
from another State or territory of the United States into this Common- 
wealth except by permission of the Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

This order shall take effect upon its approval. 

This order shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of 
animals in the Commonwealth, and by general distribution. 

Fred Freeland Walker, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Dec. 2, 1914. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 

Modification op Order No. 14. 

Jan. 13, 1915. 
To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- 
visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts 
of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto 
and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the follow- 
ing regulation: — 



26 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Department Order No. 14, relating to the movement of cattle, sheep, 
other ruminants and swine within the Commonwealth, is hereby modified, 
and from this date will apply only to the cities and towns mentioned 
below, and to areas adjacent thereto that may He within a three-mile 
radius of premises upon which foot-and-mouth disease has during the 
past three months been known to .exist, and to such other cities and 
towns, and areas adjacent thereto, in which foot-and-mouth disease 
may subsequently appear. 



Amherst. 


Dracut. 


Shrewsbury. 


Ashland. 


Grafton. 


Stoneham. 


Attleboro. 


Granby. 


Sudbury. 


Auburn. 


Hingham. 


Swampscott. 


Bellingham. 


Lynn. 


Swansea. 


Belmont. 


Maynard. 


Warren. 


Berkley. 


Medford. 


Watertown. 


Boston. 


Mendon. 


West Boylston 


Brockton. 


North Attleborough. 


Westport. 


Chicopee. 


Rehoboth. 


Worcester. 


Danvers. 


Seekonk. 





Transportation by railroad companies of cattle, sheep, other ruminants 
and swine, in any 'portion of the Commonwealth, is allowed only in dis- 
infected cars. 

This regulation shall be published by sending copies to inspectors of 
animals, registered veterinarians and transportation companies in the 
Commonwealth, and by general distribution. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Jan. 13, 1915. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 



Order No. 17. 

Jan. 20, 1915. 
To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- 
visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts 
of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and 
all other authority me hereto enabling, you are hereby notified that 
foot-and-mouth disease, which is a contagious disease and is so recog- 
nized under the laws of this Commonwealth, and which has recently 
prevailed within the limits thereof, is deemed by me to be sufficiently 
under control of this department to no longer require any restrictions 
upon the free movement of poultry. Therefore, 

Department Order No. 16, approved by the Governor and Council 
Nov. 11, 1914, is hereby revoked. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 27 

Poultry, pigeons and other farm birds may be transported into or 
moved within this Commonwealth unaccompanied by a permit from 
this department. 

This order shall take effect upon its approval. 

This order shall be published by sending copies to inspectors of animals 
and to representatives of transportation companies in the Common- 
wealth, and by general distribution. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Jan. 20, 1915. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 

Notice. 

Feb. 1, 1915. 

Modification of Restrictions on Live Stock from Maine and Vermont. 

Cattle for immediate slaughter may be brought from the above-named 
States into Massachusetts on permit issued from this department, but 
no permit will be required for shipment of such cattle to slaughtering 
establishments under Federal inspection. 

Cattle not for immediate slaughter may be brought from the above- 
named States into Massachusetts on permit issued from this depart- 
ment, but no such cattle will be allowed to go into the "closed areas/' 
or to the Brighton Stock Yards in Brighton, the Union Stock Yards in 
Watertown, or the premises of the New England Dressed Meat and 
Wool Company in Somerville. 

Cattle not for immediate slaughter must be accompanied by a cer- 
tificate that same have been continuously in State from which shipment 
is made since Sept. 1, 1914. 

The requirements relating to the tuberculin testing of interstate dairy 
cattle are the same as those in force prior to the recent discovery of foot- 
and-mouth disease in this State, and may be found in Department Order 
No. 5, issued Oct. 29, 1913. 

Application for permits should be made directly to the Commissioner 
of Animal Industry, who will grant them at his discretion. 

No permit is required to ship sheep or swine from Maine or Vermont 
into Massachusetts. 

Animals arriving within the "exposed areas" will be subject to the 
regulations of this department in force in those areas. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

"Closed areas," infected premises and territory within a radius of 
three miles of same. 

"Exposed areas," that portion of town or city outside of the three- 
mile radius in which infected premises are located. 



28 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 



Notice. 

Feb. 8, 1915. 
To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

According to the provisions of Department Order No. 14, and its 
modification as approved by the Governor and Council Jan. 13, 1915, 
the following cities and towns are made subject to the quarantine regu- 
lations of said Order No. 14 and its modification: — 

Arlington. Oakham. Waltham. 

Berlin. Somerville. Cambridge. * 

Northborough. Springfield. New Braintree. 1 

Also areas adjacent thereto that may lie within a three-mile radius of 
premises upon which foot-and-mouth disease has during the past three 
months been known to exist. 

This notice shall be published by sending a copy to each inspector of 
.animals in the Commonwealth and by general distribution. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 



Order No. 18. 

Feb. 10, 1915. 
To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- 
visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts 
of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and 
all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following 
regulations: — 

All cattle and other domestic animals which are affected with, or have 
been exposed to, foot-and-mouth disease, which is a contagious disease 
and is so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, shall be 
destroyed when in the opinion of the Commissioner of Animal Industry 
the public good so requires, and their carcasses buried or otherwise dis- 
posed of. 

Districts, buildings and places in which foot-and-mouth disease exists 
or has existed, and property which may be on or contained therein, such 
as hay, grain, fodder, utensils, etc., shall be cleansed and disinfected. 
Such property on infected premises as may be, in the opinion of the 
Commissioner of Animal Industry or that of his agents, a source of danger 
because of proximity to the contagion existing thereon shall be de- 
stroyed. 

» Feb. 10, 1915. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 29 

The Commissioner of Animal Industry may appoint persons to make 
appraisals on live stock and other property the destruction of which may 
be ordered in accordance with these regulations. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry.- 

Approved in Council, Feb. 10, 1915. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 

Amendment to Order No. 14 and its Modification. 

March 3, 1915. 
To AH Persons whom it may concern: — 

Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- 
visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts 
of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto and 
all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the following 
regulation: — 

Order No. 14, approved in Council Nov. 7, 1914, and the modification 
thereof, approved in Council Jan. 13, 1915, are hereby amended as fol- 
lows : — 

The movement of cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine may at 
any time be restricted by order of the Commissioner of Animal Industry 
in such additional cities and towns of the Commonwealth as in his opinion 
the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease require. 

The radius of quarantined areas surrounding premises on which foot- 
and-mouth disease exists or has existed since Nov. 5, 1914, may be ex- 
tended or diminished at any time by order of the Commissioner of Animal 
Industry. 

This regulation shall take effect upon its approval. 

Lester II . Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, March 3, 1915. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 

Notice. 

March 9, 1915. 
To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

On account of the continued prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease in 
this and other States, and the danger that cattle shipped into Massa- 
chusetts even from noninfected areas may acquire the disease en route, 
it is deemed necessary to hold in quarantine, for a longer period than 
has heretofore been ordered, all animals shipped into Massachusetts 
under permit from this department. 

All orders and regulations of this department governing such ship- 
ments prior to the recent appearance of foot-and-mouth disease in this 



30 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

State are still in force. These having been complied with, noninfected 
animals will be released from quarantine at the expiration of such time 
as the Commissioner of Animal Industry may deem to have been sufficient 
for the development of clinical symptoms of foot-and-mouth disease, 
if the infection had been acquired in any way. 

If foot-and-mouth disease is found to exist among these quarantined 
animals, they may be seized and destroyed without appraisal or pay- 
ment on the part of the Commonwealth, as provided in section 10, chapter 
90 of the Revised Laws. It is therefore incumbent upon owners and 
shippers, in the protection of their own interests, to see to it that dis- 
infected cars are provided for all shipments, and that strict quarantine 
is maintained after arrival. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Notice. 

May 10, 1915. 

Modification of Restrictions on Live Stock from Maine, Vermont and New 

Hampshire. 

Cattle for immediate slaughter may be brought from the above-named 
States into Massachusetts on permit issued from this department, but 
no permit will be required for shipment of such cattle to slaughtering 
establishments under Federal inspection. 

Cattle not for immediate slaughter may be brought from the above- 
named States into Massachusetts on permit issued by this department, 
but no such cattle will be allowed to go to the Brighton Stock Yards in 
Brighton, the Union Stock Yards in Watertown, the premises of the 
New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company in Somerville, or other 
premises to which the Commissioner of Animal Industry deems it unsafe 
to ship animals. 

Cattle not for immediate slaughter must be accompanied by a cer- 
tificate that same have been continuously in one of the above States 
since Sept. 1, 1914. 

The requirements relating to the tuberculin testing of interstate dairy 
cattle are the same as those in force prior to the recent prevalence of 
foot-and-mouth disease in this State, as per Department Order No. 5, 
issued Oct. 29, 1913. At present, duration of quarantine on these animals 
is extended for fifteen days, on account of the danger of infection en route. 

No permit is required to ship sheep or swine from Maine, Vermont 
or New Hampshire into Massachusetts, except into "exposed areas." 

Animals arriving within the "exposed areas" will be subject to the 
regulations of this department in force in those areas. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

"Exposed areas," infected premises and territory within a radius of 
three miles of same. 



1916.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 31 



Notice. 

May 17, 1915. 

To Transportation Companies and All Persons whom it may concern: — 

On this date and until further notice the premises of the Brighton 
Stock Yards Company, Brighton, Mass., will be open for the receipt of 
neat cattle, sheep and swine shipped by rail in disinfected cars marked 
"for immediate slaughter only," which shipments may be made without 
permit; also for the receipt of the same class of animals which may arrive 
by vehicle accompanied by permit issued by the Commissioner of Animal 
Industry. 

The premises will remain under quarantine, and subject to regulations 
of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Massachusetts De- 
partment of Animal Industry and their inspectors and agents. 

Animals will leave the premises only under the following regulations: — 

1. By rail, under seal of a Federal inspector and consigned to slaughter- 
ing establishments under Federal inspection. 

2. By public highway, under permit of the Massachusetts Department 
of Animal Industry, and consigned to slaughtering establishments under 
Federal inspection. 

No exception will be made to these regulations, therefore the attention 
of shippers should be called to them. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 



Notice. 

July 1, 1915. 

To Transportation Companies and All Persons whom it may concern: — 

On this date and until further notice the premises known as the Union 
Stock Yards, Watertown, Mass., will be open for the receipt of neat 
cattle, sheep and swine shipped by rail in disinfected cars marked "for 
immediate slaughter only," which shipments may be made without 
permit from any point within the Commonwealth, and from the States 
of Vermont, Maine and New Hampshire; also for the receipt of the 
same class of animals which may arrive by vehicle accompanied by a 
permit issued by the Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

The premises will remain under quarantine and subject to the regu- 
lations of the United States Department of Agriculture, the Massa- 
chusetts Department of Animal Industry and their inspectors and agents. 

Animals will be allowed to leave these premises only under the following 
regulations : — 

1 . By rail, under seal of a Federal inspector and consigned to slaughter- 
ing establishments under Federal inspection. 

2. By public highway, under permit of the Massachusetts Depart- 



32 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan, 

ment of Animal Industry aod consigned to slaughtering establishments 
under Federal inspection. 

No exceptions will be made to these regulations, therefore the attention 
of shippers should be called to them. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Order No. 19. 

Aug. 24, 1915. 

To Transportation Companies, the Brighton Stock Yards Company, the 
New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company, and All Persons 
whom it may concern: — 

Whereas foot-and-mouth disease has apparently been eradicated from 
all portions of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and from the State 
of New Hampshire, and at no time during the prevalence of the recent 
epidemic has been known to exist in the States of Maine or Vermont, 
and 

Whereas, in the opinion of the Commissioner of Animal Industry, it 
is safe to modify somewhat the quarantine regulations now in force affect- 
ing the Brighton market, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 
608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts in amendment thereof and in addition 
thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the 
following order and regulation: — 

Section 1. On and after Aug. 30, 1915, the premises of the Brighton Stock 
Yards Company in Brighton, within the city of Boston, the premises of the New 
England Dressed Meat and Wool Company in the city of Somerville, and the 
Union Stock Yards in the town of Watertown, will be open for the receipt of neat 
cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine from any part of Massachusetts and 
from the States of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont; provided, that all such 
animals have been within the area of the said four states continuously since Sept. 
1, 1914, and have not been, at any time since that date, on premises where foot- 
and-mouth disease has existed. 

Section 2. All consignments of neat cattle to the premises mentioned in 
section 1 hereof will be subject to the regulations applying to said premises and 
animals therein in force prior to the receDt outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, 
which regulations are contained in Department Order No. 5, approved in Council 
July 31, 1912, and Oct. 29, 1913. 

This order shall be published by furnishing copies to transportation 
companies and by mailing a copy to each inspector of animals in the 
Commonwealth. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Aug. 25, 1915. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 33 



Order No. 21. 

Oct. 6, 1915. 

To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

Whereas foot-and-mouth disease now prevails extensively among 
cattle, sheep and swine in the State of Illinois, and restriction of the ship- 
ment of animals therefrom seems necessary as a measure of prevention 
of an outbreak of that disease in this Commonwealth, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 
608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts in amendment thereof and in addition 
thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make 
the following order and regulation: — 

Section 1. The bringing of cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine into 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts from the State of Illinois for any purpose 
whatever is hereby prohibited, except on written permission of the Commissioner 
of Animal Industry. 

This order shall not apply to animals in transit from some other State through 
the State of Illinois; provided, the same are intended for immediate slaughter, 
and consigned to slaughtering establishments under Federal inspection; and 
provided, further, that the animals are not unloaded in said State from the cars or 
vehicles in which they were originally shipped. 

Section 2. This order shall be published by sending copies to railroad com- 
panies engaged in the transportation of animals to Massachusetts, and to persons, 
firms or corporations which receive interstate shipments of animals intended 
for slaughter. 

Lester H. Howard, 

Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Oct. 6, 1915. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 



Order No. 22. 

Oct. 5, 1915. 

To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

. Acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the pro- 
visions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 608 of the Acts 
of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in addition thereto 
and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby make the follow- 
ing regulation : — 

Owing to the receipt this day at the premises of the Brighton Stock 
Yards Company in Brighton within the city of Boston, Mass., of an 
animal suspected of being affected with foot-and-mouth disease, said 
premises and all neat cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine now con- 
tained in the barns or yards of said premises are hereby placed in special 



34 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

quarantine until released therefrom by the Commissioner of Animal 
Industry. 

During the existence of this special quarantine all persons entering or 
leaving said premises shall be subject to such regulations as the Commis- 
sioner of Animal Industry may deem necessary in order to properly en- 
force and maintain said special quarantine. 

The Union Market Stock Yards at Watertown are hereby declared 
closed until further notice. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Oct. 6, 1915. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 



Notice. 

Oct. 11, 1915. 

To the Inspector of Animals, and to All Others whom it may concern: — ■ 

Foot-and-mouth disease has been found to exist in the town of 
Leicester. 

Therefore, acting under authorit}' given me under Order No. 14, ap- 
proved in Council November 7, and amendment to Order No. 14, ap- 
proved in Council March 3, I do hereby order that no neat cattle, sheep, 
other ruminants or swine are to be shipped or transported by railroad, 
boat or other conveyance, or to be driven on any public highway or 
byway in any city or town within Worcester County, Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, except by permission of the Commissioner of Animal 
Industry. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Notice. 

Oct. 15, 1915. 

To Transportation Companies and All Others whom it may concern: — 

Dear Sir: — Farm-to-farm inspection in the town of Leicester and 
its vicinity having failed to disclose the existence of any additional cases 
of foot-and-mouth disease, it is deemed safe to modify the quarantine 
placed upon Worcester County. 

Therefore, on this date and until further notice, the movement of 
cattle, sheep, other ruminants and swine is not restricted except within 
a radius of five miles of premises of John P. Stevens of Leicester. 

Very truly yours, 

Lester H. Howard, 

Commissioner. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



35 



Letter sent to Cattle Owners and Transportation Companies. 

c Oct. 23, 1915. 

Dear Sir : — On this date, and until further notice, the Brighton 
Stock Yards at Brighton, Mass., will be open for traffic in dairy and 
slaughter animals under the regulations of this department applying 
thereto. 

A regulation of the United States government now in force specifies 
that cattle, sheep or swine must not be shipped interstate either to or 
from any portion of Worcester County, Mass. Therefore, animals passing 
through the Brighton Stock Yards for purposes of sale should be con- 
signed therefrom in accordance with this regulation. 

The State regulation now in force does not allow cattle, sheep or swine 
to move to or from territory within a radius of five miles of infected 
premises in the town of Leicester. 

Very truly yours, 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner. 

Statistics in connection with the control and eradication of 
foot-and-mouth disease follow. They show the towns, in 
alphabetical order, in which the disease has been found, the 
number of affected herds in those towns, the date on which 
positive cases of the disease were found, the date of killing of 
the animals, and the amount for which they were appraised. 



Statistics on Foot-and-Mouth Disease for Year ending Nov. 80, 


1915. 




City or Town. 


Date 
reported 
Positive. 


Date of 
Killing. 


Cattle. 


Swine. 


Appraisal. 


Arlington, 

Attleboro, 

Attleboro, 

Berkley, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Chicopee, 

Dracut, 

Everett, 

Everett, . . 


Feb. 8 
Dec. 3 

Feb. 15 

Jan. 4 

fMar. 22 
\ Apr. 13 
[Apr. 27 

Feb. 7 
Dec. 6 
Feb. 21 
Mar. 1 


Feb. 11 

Dec. 11 

/ Dec. 18 \ 
[Feb. 19/ 

Jan. 7 

Mar. 221 
Apr. 15 \ 
May 3 J 

/ Jan. 28 \ 
\Feb. 1/ 

Feb. 11 

Dec. 12 

Feb. 25 

Mar. 2 


9 
4 

17 
3 

10 
39 
11 
15 


3 
16 

271 

7 
25 


$515 00 
365 00 

3,050 00 

950 00 

-i 

565 00 
3,086 50 

900 00 
1,160 00 



1 Found on postmortem at the Brighton Abattoir. 



36 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



Statistics on Foot-and-Mouth Disease — Continued. 



City ok Town. 


Date 
reported 
Positive. 


Date of 
Killing. 


Cattle. 


Swine. 


Appraisal. 


Fall River, 


Feb. 27 


Mar. 2 


22 


1 


$1,306 00 


Fall River, 


Feb. 28 


Mar. 2 


1 


- 


65 00 


Grafton, 


Dec. 1 


Dec. 8 


17 


- 


930 00 


Grafton, 


Mar. 3 


Mar. 10 


30 


12 


1,810 00 


Granby, 


Dec. 4 


Dec. 14 


36 


10 


2,143 00 


Hingham, 


Apr. 15 


Apr. 15 


7 


— 4 


525 00 


Holden, 


Feb. 13 


Feb. 20 


4 


- 


180 00 


Leicester, 


Oct. 11 


Oct. 15 


12 


- 


750 00 


Lexington, ..... 


Feb. 18 


Feb. 21 


12 


253 


3,525 00 


Lexington, 


Mar. 1 


Mar. 3 


12 


- 


840 00 


Marlborough, .... 


Mar. 8 


Mar. 11 


35 


- 


3,300 00 


Marlborough, .... 


Mar. 9 


Mar. 11 


20 


- 


1,100 00 


New Braintree, .... 


Feb. 9 


Feb. 13 


25 


11 


1,734 00 


Northampton, .... 


Mar. 11 


Mar. 15 


2 


17 


347 00 


Northborough, • . 


Feb. 6 


Feb. 15 


3 


2 


220 00 


Oakham, 


Feb. 5 


Feb. 12 


24 


1 


1,250 00 


Rehoboth, ... 


Dec. 4 


Dec. 8 


32 


- 


2,400 00 


Rehoboth, 


Dec. 4 


f Dec. 9 1 

Dec. 10 \ 

[Dec. 11 J 


24 


1,075 


25,540'. 00 » 


Rehoboth, 


Dec. 6 


Dec. 11 


19 


- 


1,350 00 


Rehoboth, . . . • 


Jan. 1 


f Dec. 4 1 
[Jan. 5 / 


30 


- 


1,359 00 


Russell, 


Feb. 22 


Mar. 1 


3 


4 


216 00 


Seekonk, 


Dec. 4 


f Dec. 9 ) 

Dec. 10 
[Dec. 11 J 


- 


958 


- 


Seekonk, 


Dec. 19 


/Dec. 22 1 
i Dec. 23 / 


1 


1,109 


10,255 25 


Seekonk, 


Mar. 6 


Mar. 9 


60 


- 


4,600 00 


Seekonk, 


Mar. 15 


Mar. 17 


51 


3 


4,060 00 


Somerville, 


Feb. 8 


- 


- 


- 


_2 


Southborough, .... 


Feb. 11 


Feb. 13 


16 


- 


1,095 00 


Southborough, .... 


Feb. 15 


Feb. 17 


4 


- 


280 002 


Southborough, . . 


Feb. 15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Southborough, . . 


Feb. . 19 


Feb. 24 


109 


- 


7,000 00 


Springfield, 


Feb. 3 


Feb. 8 


2 


- 


160 00 


Swampscott, , 


Dec. 2 


Dec. 5 


39 


- 


2,400 00 



i Includes appraisal on 958 head of swine given below. 
2 Found on postmortem at slaughtering establishment. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



37 



Statistics on Foot-and~Mouth Disease — Concluded. 



City or Town. 



Date 
reported 
Positive. 



Date of 
Killing. 



Cattle. 



Swine. 



Appraisal. 



Swansea, 

Swansea, 

Swansea, 

Waltham, 

Waltham, 

Waltham, 

Waltham, 

Waltham, 

Waltham, 

Waltham, 

Waltham, 

Warren, 

Watertown, . 

Watertown, . 

Westborough, 

Weston, 

Westport, 

Worcester, . 



Worcester, 



Totals, 



Dec. 15 

Mar. 5 

Mar. 10 

Feb. 6 

Feb. 8 

Feb. 11 

Feb. 17 

Feb. 18 

Feb. 22 

Feb. 26 

Feb. 28 

Dec. 1 

Feb. 14 

Mar. 6 

Mar. 13 

Feb. 17 

Mar. 18 

Jan. 30 

Feb. 20 



Dec. 17 

Mar. 13 

Mar. 11 

Feb. 12 

Feb. 12 

Feb. 15 

Feb. 20 

Feb. 20 

Feb. 26 

Feb. 28 

Mar. 3 

Dec. 4 

Feb. 17 

Mar. 8 

Mar. 16 

Feb. 20 

Mar. 19 

Feb. 19 



(Feb. 


241 


Mar. 


9 


Mar. 


17 


Mar. 


19 


Mar. 


25 


Mar. 


31 J 



9 
22 
25 
12 
95 
22 
34 

4 
32 
10 

49 

6 

81 



1,235 



2 
429 

31 



60 
3 



1,529 



5,840 



$280 00 
3,943 50 

410 00 
5,000 00 

500 00 
1,100 00 
1,200 00 

875 00 
8,150 00 
1,650 00 
2,764 00 

225 00 
1,900 00 

750 00 

877 00 
4,300 00 

475 00 
13,650 00 

23,746 88i 



$163,128 13 



1 Of these animals, 413 were sold for pork on the market before affected. They were appraised 
at $8,203.50; salvage was $4,406.62. The difference only, which it was agreed should be paid, — 
namely, $3,796.88, — ■ is included in the total appraisal above. 

In addition to the above animals there were 75 sheep, 10 goats and 3 fowl appraised, killed and 
paid for, the appraisal, a small amount, being included in the above total. 

The number of herds examined by agents of the department one or more times during the past 
year was 648. 



In every branch of the control work the hearty cooperation 
of officials of the United States Department of Agriculture has 
been given this department. Without the Federal aid so 
promptly rendered and systematically carried out to the final 
completion of the work, the problem of eradication of foot-and- 
mouth disease in Massachusetts would have been a much more 
serious one, both in the extent of the infection and in reimburse- 



38 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

merit of the owners of cattle and other property destroyed, and 
in the necessarily large expense incurred in the execution of the 
work. 

The following statistics covering the entire outbreak of foot- 
and-mouth disease, which began on Nov. 5, 1914, may be 
interesting : — 

Infected premises, . . . . 98 

Towns in which the disease was found, 50 

Places visited and herds examined by agents at least once, and 

many of them two or more times, . . . . . . 1,248 

Cattle killed, 2,126 

Swine killed, 6,116 

Sheep killed, ........'.... 77 

Goats killed, 11 

Fowl killed, 1,697 

Appraisal of animals killed, $231,694 38 

Appraisal of property destroyed, 8,562 47 

Total, $240,256 85 

Amount of special appropriation, $150,000 00 

Paid by the Commonwealth to date, being 50 per cent, of 

the appraised value, $113,195 12 

Total number of claims paid to date, ..... 104 

Hog Cholera. 

The decrease of 39,615 head of swine in Massachusetts from 
1912 to 1914 proved upon investigation to be due largely to the 
ravages of hog cholera, either directly or because many stock- 
men had discontinued keeping swine on account of the preva- 
lence of the disease. This condition was rapidly ruining the 
swine industry of Massachusetts, and it is because of this 
condition and the necessity of controlling this contagious disease 
that the Department of Animal Industry is engaged in treating 
or immunizing swine against hog cholera. The usual mortality 
after hog cholera gains access to a herd, if serum treatment is 
not given, is from 85 to 100 per cent. Our statistics show that, 
by prompt application of this treatment after cholera gains 
access to a herd, we have been successful in saving 92 per cent, 
of the animals so treated. They further show that animals 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 39 

when properly immunized will riot contract cholera, regardless 
of how prevalent the disease may be in the neighborhood. 

In this treatment anti-hog cholera serum and virus are used. 
Anti-hog cholera serum is the blood from an animal which is 
hyper-immune (many times immune), and which contains 
enormous numbers of anti-bodies which resemble anti-toxin. 
This serum or blood has the faculty of temporarily protecting 
other swine into which it may be injected. This protection is 
called temporary immunity, and lasts for a period varying from 
three to twelve weeks, after which the swine are again sus- 
ceptible. This treatment is commonly called "serum only" 
treatment, and is used in swine which show clinical symptoms 
of hog cholera or which are carrying a high temperature, also 
in pigs which are not old enough for the simultaneous treatment 
(under 40 pounds), in pregnant sows, in sows nursing pigs, and 
in animals which need protection for only a very short time, as 
in the case of animals which are to be slaughtered within a few 
weeks. 

Hog cholera "virus" is virulent blood which is drawn from a 
pig during the height of an attack of hog cholera. This blood 
or virus used in small quantities, in combination with a large 
amount of serum, is what is spoken of as "simultaneous" 
treatment, and this treatment when properly administered gives 
the animal a permanent immunity. This is accomplished in the 
following manner : — 

The serum, which is injected as before explained, temporarily 
protects the animal. The virus, on the other hand, which is 
simultaneously injected, stimulates the cells of the body to 
produce their own anti-bodies, and once this production is 
started it continues indefinitely, therefore giving a permanent 
immunity. 

The department is using both the "serum only" and the 
"simultaneous" treatments. The simultaneous treatment is 
administered to all swine on infected premises or in noninfected 
herds upon application of the owners, where the animals are 
to be kept longer than a few weeks, providing that they are 
over 40 pounds' weight and are not under the classification for 
which we use the "serum only" treatment. 

Every case of hog cholera reported is investigated by one of 



40 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

our agents and serum treatment advised if conditions warrant 
the same. In all cases the treatment is carried out by agents 
of the department, and the only expense to the owner is for the 
serum and virus which are used, the Commonwealth defraying 
all other expenses. 

The campaign of the Department of Animal Industry against 
hog cholera has been vigorously conducted throughout the year, 
notwithstanding the fact that it has been badly handicapped 
because practically all of the agents who are ordinarily doing 
hog cholera work were engaged for fully two months in an 
effort to exterminate foot-and-mouth disease, which left the 
cholera work practically at a standstill during that time. In 
spite of this fact the amount of work which has been done is 
most satisfactory. 

One might assume, in comparing our statistics for 1915 with 
those of 1914, that hog cholera was on the increase in Massa- 
chusetts. Such, however, is not the case. Until this year we 
had no method of determining the amount of cholera which 
existed in this State, or the number of animals which died from 
the disease and the resultant financial loss. This was due 
largely to the fact that stock-men were not aware of the fact 
that the disease could be prevented or possibly cured. As they 
learned that this could be done, and that it was not necessary 
for swine to die from the disease or to be slaughtered as 
formerly, there has been a large increase in the demand for 
this work and in the number of cases reported, consequently 
we have a much better idea of the amount of cholera which 
actually exists. Undoubtedly this increase will continue during 
the coming year, notwithstanding the fact that in many herds 
which heretofore have annually lost hundreds of swine from 
cholera we now, by immunization, have the disease under 
control. 

In 1915 we investigated on account of cholera 349 herds of 
swine as against 100 reported in 1914. We immunized against 
cholera, at the request of the owners, the swine in 95 non- 
infected herds, as against one herd in 1914. In 1914, because 
of limited investigations, we knew of only 900 head of swine 
which died from cholera without being treated. In 1915, 
because of our more extended investigations and field work, 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 41 

we know of 3,080 head of swine which have died from hog 
cholera without treatment. 

The table on pages 47 and 48 gives some idea of the amount 
of work which has been done, together with the results ob- 
tained. From these figures it will be seen that 16,983 head 
of swine have been treated during the year. Of this number, 
10,300 animals have received the "serum only" treatment, either 
because they were already infected, or because they were not 
in the proper condition to receive the simultaneous treatment. 
Out of this number 718 animals, or approximately 7 per cent., 
have died. In infected herds 5,826 animals have received the 
simultaneous treatment. Of this number 70, or 1.2 per cent., 
have died. It is well to note at this time that at least 99 per 
cent, of the animals before mentioned were garbage fed, and 
under these conditions the mortality must be considered ex- 
tremely low. 

Probably no portion of our statistics will be more interesting 
than that regarding the noninfected herds. In 95 herds 863 
animals were immunized. Of this number only one died from 
hog cholera. This one animal could undoubtedly have been 
saved by reinforcing with serum had the owner not objected to 
such a procedure. Three pigs in noninfected herds gave a 
strong reaction to the treatment and were off feed for a few 
days, but fully recovered. This shows clearly that the amount 
of vaccination cholera which follows our work is negligible. 

A word regarding recrudescence (return of the disease) will 
be of interest. We are frequently asked regarding the danger 
of using the simultaneous treatment and later discontinuing the 
same. On general principles we do not advocate this .policy. 
In the few noninfected herds where this has been done we have 
not had a single case where the disease has occurred at a later 
time, although many young, susceptible pigs have been and 
still are on the premises. It frequently happens that many 
pigs from immune sows, which are of course immune while 
nursing, do not receive serum until several weeks after they are 
weaned, because we are unable to answer all applications for 
immunization as promptly as we desire. During this time they 
are, of course, susceptible and would undoubtedly contract 
cholera if infection existed on the premises. The other extreme, 



42 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. , [Jan. 

however, is noticed in infected herds. In the majority of these 
herds, just as soon as the immunity' conferred by the serum 
wears off, the animals contract cholera. This has happened in 
a large majority of the infected herds where treatment has been 
carried on, and consequently it is our policy, as far as possible, 
to either give more serum in six weeks after the "serum only" 
treatment has been given, or to permanently immunize by the 
simultaneous treatment. In these cases there is every reason to 
blame the return or continuation of the trouble, not upon the 
use of virus in administering the simultaneous treatment, but 
upon the fact that the premises are badly infected and that a 
proper scheme of disinfection has not been carried out. 

Early in the year the policy was adopted of not giving the 
simultaneous treatment to swine until five or six weeks had 
elapsed after serum administration. Previous to that time it 
frequently happened that animals were given the simultaneous 
treatment within a shorter space of time, and invariably we 
found where this was done that the animals were given an 
immunity longer than that conferred by serum only, but that 
they did not receive a permanent immunity. We are strongly 
of the opinion, notwithstanding that some authorities do not 
agree with us, that it is impossible to give a permanent im- 
munity while an animal is harboring a temporary immunity. 
The length of the temporary immunity being uncertain, in field 
work we have adopted six weeks as a minimum length of time 
which must elapse before the simultaneous treatment can follow 
the administration of serum only. With this same purpose in 
view we are now using larger amounts of virus than heretofore. 
Whereas formerly one-half cubic centimeter of virus was used 
on pigs of from 40 to 60 pounds, we are now using one cubic 
centimeter, which has overcome some of our difficulties regard- 
ing a partial immunity. 

An interesting deduction may be drawn from animals in 
infected herds which have temperatures ranging from 103.5 to 
106. It will be noted that 944 of these animals received 
simultaneous treatment. This was done in specially selected 
herds, and in these cases the average dose of virus was ad- 
ministered with more than the ordinary dose of serum. In 
every case the operator was an expert man and used this 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 43 

method only when he was reasonably sure that the temperature 
was ascending rather than descending. Our statistics show that 
the results from this method have been equally as good as in 
animals with a temperature below 103.5, but extreme caution 
and good judgment are required when this is done. 

The record of deaths following our treatment we believe to 
be unusually accurate, due to the method which we pursue in 
obtaining these figures. Report blanks are sent to the owner 
of the swine after the animals have been treated. A copy of 
this report blank follows : — 



44 



ANIMAL INDUSTRY. 



[Jan. 



En 

o 

I— I 



O 
H 

Eh 

O 

o 
O 

a 



o 
o 

o 



•d 

© s 

•o © 

£ S 

© © 

t- > 

bo * 

J 



B o 
<! 

o 

Eh 

H 
P3 
«! 
d. 

Q 

a? 

P 

W 
o 

02 



7? & 



5 § 

+3 © 

d ^ 

© ^ 
CQ f 

© i; 

© ^ 

u 

bo 2 
o s 

ft 



03 

.5 ® 

bo '3 

* 8 
■P co 

fl S3 

© CO 

S 3 

5 c 

6 u 

£g 

2 a 

£S 
5 § 
n 



■p 
w 



bO 

a 

u 

3 

O 

a 
a 

o 



" EH 

3« 



w 
u 

<! 
H 

H 

Q 



p 



Ph 



-d 









T3 
© 



c3 






o3 

a 

a 

o 

K 



oj 



3 



03 

>> 
& 

a 

o 

K 



o 
a 
>> 

a 

03 





2 

o 
>> 

o 
Q 



03 


"S 


rW 


© 


« 


J3 










>> 


O 






Xt 


a 




.2 

'•+3 


© 





M 03 



_ Pi 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 45 

It will be seen that the owner makes a report once in every 
two weeks for six weeks. In the meantime his herd is under 
quarantine, said quarantine remaining on the herd until his 
reports have been received; and from our experience we know 
that if there is anything to criticize regarding results the owner 
is far more apt to report these conditions than the operator 
might be. There are, however, some difficulties with this 
method because occasionally animals die from causes other than 
cholera, and the owner, not being able to diagnose the case, 
ascribes the death to the treatment. If we were able to pick 
out these cases the number of deaths following treatment would 
be even lower. 

During the past year a widespread prevalence of foot-and- 
mouth disease in three states of the middle west originated in 
the use of anti-hog cholera serum which had been contaminated 
with the virus of foot-and-mouth disease. While our Order 
No. 12 protected us to a certain degree against this condition, 
it was not deemed quite sufficient. Consequently, Department 
Order No. 20 was promulgated and approved by the Governor 
and Council. A copy of this order follows : — 

Order No. 20. 

Sept. 15, 1915. 

To All Persons whom it may concern: — 

Whereas the Department of Animal Industry is now actively en- 
gaged in the control and eradication of hog cholera, which is a contagious 
disease, and is so recognized under the laws of this Commonwealth, 

And whereas successful control of this disease has been accomplished 
only in those States which have regulated and restricted the sale, distri- 
bution, possession and administration of various commercial products 
known as anti-hog cholera serum, and virulent blood or virus, which 
products, while designed to prevent or cure hog cholera, in the hands of 
untrained men tend to create and cause an epidemic of this disease, 

Now, therefore, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in 
me by the provisions of chapter 90 of the Revised Laws and chapter 
608 of the Acts of 1912 and all acts and amendments thereof and in 
addition thereto and all other authority me hereto enabling, I do hereby 
make the following order and regulation : — 

No person, firm or corporation shall directly or indirectly administer, 
or procure or cause to be administered, or have in possession with intent 
to have administered directly or indirectly, within the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, anti-hog cholera scrum, virulent blood or visius, or any 



46 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

other preparation of a similar composition under whatever name, and 
administered in a similar way for the prevention and cure of hog cholera, 
unless written permission has been obtained from the Commissioner of 
Animal Industry for such administration or possession. 

This order shall take effect upon its approval. 

This order shall be published by- sending a copy to each inspector of 
animals in the Commonwealth, and by distribution to known breeders 
of swine, to commercial houses known to be dealing in the aforesaid 
products, and to veterinarians registered under the laws of the Com- 
monwealth. 

Lester H. Howard, 
Commissioner of Animal Industry. 

Approved in Council, Sept. 15, 1915. 

E. F. Hamlin, 

Executive Secretary. 

Since January of 1915 we have tested all anti-hog cholera 
serum and virus which have been used by our agents. These 
products are tested not only against foot-and-mouth disease, 
but also to ascertain whether or not the serum is potent and 
the virus virulent. This is done because it is known that to 
obtain good results in immunizing against hog cholera two 
things are absolutely necessary, — first, the work must be 
properly carried out, and secondly, the operator must use serum, 
which is known to be potent and virus which is virulent. 
There is no certainty that anti-hog cholera serum and virus, 
as ordinarily sold, meet these requirements. Our testing of 
these products, therefore, affords the owners of swine a large 
degree of security which could not possibly be enjoyed in any 
other manner. A comparison of the results obtained in different 
sections of the country verifies this statement. Unfavorable 
results from the simultaneous treatment have been experienced 
in States where the use of virus is not restricted to trained 
men responsible to the State, or where the most stringent tests 
of serum and virus are not carried out. The results obtained 
in any locality may be judged by this standard. 

During the year we have had considerable trouble from a 
secondary infection from bacillus suipestifer and bacillus 
suisepticus, and we are at present working along lines which we 
trust will prevent this complication. 

We have every reason to believe that the work in connection 
with the prevention and treatment of hog cholera will increase 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 47 

very rapidly. The swine problem in Massachusetts differs 
from that in many other States. The closeness of piggeries to 
each other, the fact that approximately 90 per cent, of all 
swine are garbage fed, and the unusually heavy intrastate 
traffic make practically every herd an exposed one. Under 
these conditions the only feasible way to control hog cholera 
seems to be in permanently immunizing all susceptible swine 
by the simultaneous method. The swine owners with whom 
we are familiar have no desire for the "serum only" treatment, 
inasmuch as its cost is practically as great as for the simul- 
taneous treatment, and the immunity conferred by the former 
is only temporary, whereas the latter gives a permanent 
immunity. 

Our most serious handicap in the work at the present time 
is the fact that we have not a sufficient number of trained men 
to handle it properly, as the demand for preventive treatment 
is increasing rapidly. This results in some unavoidable delay 
in the administration of the treatment after applications for 
same are received. This condition, however, we hope to be 
able to overcome in the coming year. 

Statistics on Hog Cholera for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1915. 

Number of herds investigated, . . . - . . . . 349 

Number of herds in which hog cholera was diagnosed, . . 227 
Number of infected herds quarantined and treatment ad- 
ministered, ............ 150 

Number of infected herds quarantined but not treated, . . 77 
Number of swine reported as having died from hog cholera 

without treatment,- . 3,080 

Approximate value of these animals, . . . . . . $11,052 

Number of swine reported slaughtered because of hog cholera, . 909 

" Serum only" treatment: — 

Number of pigs too young for simultaneous treatment, . . 4,185 

Number of sows pregnant, 69 

Number of sows nursing pigs, 103 

Number of animals in above classes which died following 

treatment, 91 

Number of animals showing clinical symptoms or tempera- 
tures over 104, . 5,953 

Number of infected animals which treatment failed to save, . 627 



48 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Total number receiving " serum only" treatment, . . . 10,300 
Total number which treatment failed to save, .... 718 

Percentage of animals saved by " serum only " treatment, . 93 

Simultaneous treatment in infected herds : — 
Number immunized with temperatures below 103.5, . . 4,876 
Number of animals which died following immunization, . 39 
Number immunized with temperatures above 103.5, . . 944 
Number of these animals which died following immuniza- 
tion, 31 

Total number receiving simultaneous treatment in infected 

herds, 5,826 

Total number which treatment failed to save, .... 70 
Percentage of animals saved by simultaneous treatment in in- 
fected herds, 98.8 

Simultaneous treatment in noninf ected herds : — ■ 

Number of herds, 95 

Number of animals immunized, 863 

Number of animals which died following immunization, . 1 

Approximate value of animals treated, . . . . . . $200,000 

Approximate value of animals which treatment failed to save, . 4,182 

Cost of serum and virus to the owners, 11,838 

Approximate amount of money saved owners, . . . 183,980 

Total number of animals treated, . . . . ■ . . . 16,983 
Total number of infected animals which treatment did not 

save, . . . . ' 789 

Tuberculosis. 

The study of tuberculosis both in man and animals is one to 
which much attention has been given for many years, and the 
problem of its control among animals is so important at the 
present day as to command the attention of many investigators. 
Individuals, commissions, government investigators and State 
experiment station workers have made many contributions to 
the knowledge of this subject. 

As the department records show a continued widespread 
prevalence of this disease in Massachusetts for many years, 
constant activity is necessary in order that its spread may be 
limited as far as possible, both on account of the sanitary 
significance of its existence as well as the great economic 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 49 

importance of the same, which is shown by the fact that 1,079 
Massachusetts cattle have during the past year been condemned 
and killed on account of being affected with tuberculosis, for 
which the State has paid to the owners approximately $35,000. 

Whether or not the disease is increasing or diminishing 
among our neat cattle is a question that cannot be accurately 
answered. The number of animals infected cannot be de- 
termined, as but a small percentage of them are subjected to 
the tuberculin test, which test is the most reliable diagnostic 
method at our command. It has been clearly established that 
there are certain herds and certain localities in which the disease 
is much more prevalent than in others. It has also been shown 
that there are many premises and localities where tuberculosis 
is rarely found, conditions of climate, breeding, traffic in animals, 
development and replenishment of the herds being especially 
favorable to maintenance of health. 

Considering the economic importance of tuberculosis among 
cattle, facts relating to its distribution must be kept in mind 
when efforts are being made to control its spread. When once 
introduced into a herd it is liable to spread from infected to well 
animals with more or less rapidity. It causes a large number of 
animals to be condemned and killed, and it reduces very largely 
the market value of such animals as may be infected but have 
not been recognized as diseased. It reduces the breeding value 
of animals. It causes a waste from the fact that tuberculous 
animals do not give adequate returns for the food supplied 
them, and in many cases its development destroys the interest 
of a breeder in the maintenance of his herd at a high standard 
of health. 

Our State laws relating to the control of this disease impose 
the following condition: that tuberculin as a diagnostic agent 
for the detection of this disease shall be used only upon cattle 
which are brought into the Commonwealth from other States, 
and upon such animals within the State as their owners request 
be tuberculin tested. Therefore, condemnation of a Massa- 
chusetts animal as tuberculous can be made only as the result 
of a physical examination. The result of this limitation in 
methods of diagnosis undoubtedly is that many cases of tuber- 
culosis exist because the disease cannot be positively diagnosed. 



50 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Being limited in our condemnation of cases to those diagnosed 
by physical examination alone, it is important that there be 
developed and applied all possible skill and efficiency in this 
method of diagnosis, and also that it be used as extensively as 
is practicable in order that existing cases may be found. 

It has been the practice heretofore in the department, on the 
occasion of an animal being quarantined on account of being 
suspected of this disease, for an agent to visit the premises and 
physically examine the animal, condemning or releasing the 
same according to his opinion as to whether or not it was 
diseased. His action in each instance has been limited to the 
particular animal on which a quarantine had been placed. 

In my opinion, in order that the spread of the disease on the 
particular premises visited may be limited in so far as is 
possible, it becomes necessary to carefully and completely 
examine all other animals in the herd in which the tuberculous 
animal has been found. Otherwise, it seems to me we are 
simply temporizing with a very serious condition, and that no 
real progress can be made in the elimination of disease by 
simply examining and taking certain diseased animals from a 
herd without making sure that no others on the same premises 
are also diseased. 

The history of the control of this disease in certain herds and 
localities shows that at more or less regular intervals the de- 
partment is called upon to examine and condemn one animal 
only in a herd. Believing that in many instances other cases 
quite as dangerous as centers of infection may exist on the 
same premises, I have accordingly ordered that hereafter when 
an agent of the department finds one tuberculous animal he 
shall immediately carefully examine all other animals in the 
herd, and if suspected cases are found he shall notify the owner 
of existing conditions, have the suspected animals placed in 
quarantine, and disposed of according to the methods followed 
in the original case. In the short time in which this method 
has been in operation we have found that in many instances 
two centers of infection have been destroyed where formerly the 
second one was left to do its deadly work, unrecognized but 
none the less effective. 

With a disease which is ordinarily slow in development of 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 51 

symptoms, subsequent examinations of a herd which has been 
exposed must necessarily result in bringing to light cases 
which under the former custom would probably not have been 
recognized until a much later date, and during that time might 
have caused much damage by spread of the infection. There- 
fore, in my opinion, there should be added to the regulation 
requiring herd examinations one requiring that the same 
premises be visited within a period of three months and the 
animals again examined, in order that cases which may have 
developed clinically since the first visit may be found and 
disposed of. 

Careful physical examination by trained men at regular 
intervals of all animals which have been exposed to tuberculosis 
should, in the course of time, have a marked effect in reducing 
the number of tuberculous animals in the State. 

Owing to the prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease shipment 
of cattle into Massachusetts from other States was prohibited 
during a large portion of the year, and the Brighton Stock 
Yards, the public market through which the greater number of 
cattle coming from other States are distributed to Massa- 
chusetts farms, was closed for a period of nine months. The 
number of cattle brought into the State was therefore very 
much reduced. This was unavoidable, however, as in protection 
of the cattle interests of the entire State it was necessary to use 
every precaution against the further introduction of this in- 
fection. Therefore our records of the tuberculin testing of 
interstate cattle during the past year show the number to have 
been very much reduced from previous years. At the present 
time restrictions against the shipment of cattle from Maine, 
New Hampshire and Vermont, imposed on account of the 
prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease, have been removed. 
From these States comes the greater portion of cattle shipped 
to Massachusetts interstate, and the cattle owners of the State 
are therefore again able to replenish their herds by importa- 
tions from the States mentioned. 

As having an important bearing on the existence and spread 
of tuberculosis in Massachusetts, attention may be called to the 
character of the work done by the department in testing inter- 
state animals with tuberculin in order to disclose whether or 



52 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

not they are diseased. For the purpose of properly protecting 
the health of the animals of the State it is necessary that the 
application of the tuberculin test on interstate cattle should be 
surrounded with every condition looking to the proper interpre- 
tation of the result. In the first place, the animals should be 
in proper condition to receive the subcutaneous injection of the 
material used in the test, and secondly, regulations should be 
carefully formulated for the conduct of the test from that point 
forward, and should be strictly adhered to. The tests should 
be made by men of training and experience, and the results 
determined by intelligent study of the records made. A 
particular effort has been made the past year by the department 
to enforce regulations the observance of which will comply with 
the conditions above mentioned. 

The department's tuberculin testing which is done at the 
Brighton Stock Yards, and is applied to all dairy cattle shipped 
interstate to the quarantine stations at Brighton, Watertown 
and Somerville, is now under the charge of a veterinarian who 
has had w T ide experience in this work and has been in the 
service of the department for many years. Tuberculin testing 
done at other points in the State under the auspices of the 
department is in all cases done by an accredited man of training 
and experience. 

As the department is in the habit of accepting and approving 
records of tuberculin tests made by veterinarians of other 
States on cattle which are shipped to Massachusetts, every 
effort has been made to insure the proper performance of this 
work in accordance with our own regulations. If for any reason 
discredit attaches to the work of any veterinarian making a 
test, the animals are retested by our own agents, and approval 
of tests made by the discredited man withheld in all subsequent 
cases. It should be said that very seldom has the department 
been called upon to discredit any test made by a qualified 
veterinarian, either in this State or in other States from which 
cattle are shipped to Massachusetts. As we require the ap- 
proval of the live-stock authorities of every State whose veteri- 
narians make tests on animals to be shipped to Massachusetts, 
it is our opinion that Massachusetts interests are entirely safe- 
guarded in this matter. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



53 



Below are various tables showing the extent of the depart- 
ment's work in connection with the control of tuberculosis in 
the State for the year ending Nov. 30, 1915. 



Cattle Tuberculin tested. 

Cattle tested at the quarantine station at Brighton, 
Cattle tested by veterinarians outside the State : : — 
Received at Brighton, . . . . . 338 

Received at other points, . ■ . . . 4,912 



Cattle tested by agents of the department at points 
other than the quarantine station, .... 
Cattle awaiting test, . . . . .... 



Disposition of Above Cattle. 

Cattle condemned on Brighton test, . . . 

Cattle killed on " permit to kill," Brighton test, 
Cattle released from Brighton as free from tuber 

culosis, . . . - 

Cattle condemned on test at other points in State, 
Killed on physical examination, 
Killed on " permit to kill" after first test, 
Disposed of for beef after first test, . 
Awaiting test or retest, .... 
Released as free from tuberculosis, . 



4,858 



5,250 

5,258 
2 



135 
■ 43 

5,018 
173 
1 
1 
4 
8 

9,985 



15,368 



15,368 



Total number of cattle quarantined or reported for examination 

during the year, . 1,787 



Massachusetts Cattle. 

Number released, 194 

Number condemned, killed and paid for, . 941 
Number condemned and killed, in process of 

settlement, 107 

Number condemned, no award, ... 4 
Number permit to kill, paid for, ... 23 
Number permit to kill, in process of settle- 
ment, 8 

Number permit to kill, no award, . . . 121 
Number killed by owner or died in quarantine, 

no award, 58 



1,456 



54 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan, 



Cattle from without the State. 

Number released, 9 

Number condemned and killed, no award, . 264 

Number condemned and killed, no lesions 

found, paid for, . . . . - . . . 14 

Number died in quarantine, no award, 1 

Number permit to kill, no award, ... 43 

331 

^il 1,787 

1 

Of the 331 interstate cattle, 154 were tested at Brighton; no 
lesions were found in 8, for which the State has reimbursed the 
owner. Of the remaining 177 cattle (which were tested at 
other points than Brighton) 6 were found to show no lesions, 
for which the State has reimbursed the owners. 

In addition to the 1,787 head of cattle disposed of as above, 
189 cattle and 12 swine have been reported by butchers, 
Tenderers and boards of health as having been found tuber- 
culous at the time of slaughter, all of which were rendered. 

During the year a number of cattle owners made voluntary 
request for the tuberculin testing of their herds by agents of the 
department. The figures which follow show the work which 
was done in response to these requests : — 

Number of cattle tested, 124 

Number released as healthy, . - . . . . . . .105 

Number killed on " permit to kill," no award, . . . .10 

Number condemned, killed and paid for, 5 

Number condemned and killed, no award, 4 

124 

Forty-nine head of cattle reported as reacting to tests made 
by private veterinarians were released, as they could not be 
condemned on physical examination. 

Receipts of Stock at the Watertown Stock Yards for the Year ending Nov. 

30, 1915. 

New Hampshire cattle, . 1,595 

Vermont cattle, ... . . 1,610 

Massachusetts cattle, 614 

Sheep and lambs, . . 646 

Calves, . . . . 5,219 

Swine, , 990 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



55 



Receipts of Stock at the New England Dressed Meat and Wool Company's 
Yards at Somerville for the Year ending Nov. 80, 1915. 

Maine cattle, 3,391 

New Hampshire cattle, . . . 2,751 

Vermont cattle, 8,099 

Massachusetts cattle, . 120 

Western cattle, . . . . . . ' . . . . . 5,155 

Canada cattle, . . . '. ■'. ....-■ 3,564 

Sheep and lambs, . . 310,518 

Calves, . . . . 75,331 

Swine, . . . . ' . 1,033,100 

Receipts of Stock at Brighton for the Year ending Nov. 30, 1915. 

Maine cattle, 4,648 

New Hampshire cattle, 5,944 

Vermont cattle, . . . . . . . . . 7,151 

Massachusetts cattle, 13,819 

New York cattle, 2,901 

Western cattle, 18,037 

Canada cattle, . . . . . . . . . . . 1,202 

Sheep and lambs, . . . . . . . . . . 5,964 

Calves, 46.365 

Swine . . 51,737 



Report of Cattle brought into State during the Year to Points outside of the 

Quarantine Stations. 

For dairy and breeding purposes, tested before shipment, 4,912 
For dairy and breeding purposes, tested after arrival, . 5,258 
For dairy and breeding purposes, awaiting test, . . 2 



Neat cattle on which no test was required, exclusive of 
cattle and calves for immediate slaughter, . 
The last item is made up as follows : — 
Returned from out-of-State pastures, 
Calves under six months old, 
Died before test could be made, 
Lost en route or in pasture, 
Injured and killed before test, . 
For temporary stay at exhibition or at auctions, 
Shipped to another State soon after arrival, . 
Remaining in State for brief periods only, 



Cattle for immediate slaughter, 
Calves for immediate slaughter, 



Total for all purposes, 



480 

145 

3 

2 

1 

60 

53 

4 



10,172 



748 



1,934 
3,992 

16,846 



56 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Nearly all of the total number of animals given above were 
brought into the State on permits issued by the head of the 
department, only 341 having been brought in without permits, 
which were reported to the department by railroad agents, 
local inspectors or others. Of these, 43 were tested before ship- 
ment, 23 were slaughtered at once for beef or veal, 2 were 
calves under six months old, 171 were returned from pasture, 
and the remainder, 102 head, were tested by agents of the de- 
partment. 

The following figures show the disposition of animals that 
were brought into the State to points outside the quarantine 
stations at Brighton, Watertown and Somerville, which failed 
to pass a satisfactory tuberculin test : — 

Condemned on first test . . . 74 

Condemned on second test, 94 

Condemned on third test, 5 

Killed on physical examination, . . . . . . . . 1 

Killed on "permit to kill" after first test, 1 

Killed for beef by owner after first test, ...... 2 

Disposed of for beef before retest could be made, . . . 2 

Awaiting retest 4 

Isolated and awaiting third test, 2 

185 

Results in the Above Cases. 

Found diseased on postmortem examination, 163 

No lesions found, paid for by State, 11 

No report of postmortem examination obtainable, . . . . 4 

Awaiting report of result, 1 

Cases of animals still awaiting retest, 4 

Animals isolated and awaiting third test, 2 

185 

There were 1,406 permits issued during the year, 281 of 
which were not used. One permit was issued allowing animals 
to return from exhibition in another State, 11 allowing cattle 
to be unloaded en route through the State, and 11 allowing 
cattle to be pastured in the State during the season. 

During the spring and early summer agents of the department 
tested with tuberculin 427 head of cattle that were to be sent 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



57 



into other States for pasture during the summer, mostly into 
New Hampshire, and 57 animals were tagged for the same 
purpose, making a total of 484 head. 

On account of the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease during 
the final month of the previous year no permits for shipment of 
dairy cattle into the State were issued during the months of 
December, 1914, and January, 1915. On Feb. 1, 1915, cattle 
from Maine and Vermont were allowed, and on May 10 . this 
permission was extended to the State of New Hampshire. On 
July 1 cattle were allowed in from other States, but only under 
certain restrictions. Notwithstanding these restrictions there 
was a large increase in the number of dairy cattle brought to 
points outside the several quarantine stations, which is ac- 
counted for by the fact that Brighton market was closed to such 
shipments until August 30, and dealers who usually ship to that 
station were obliged to ship elsewhere. 

The record of cattle and calves brought into the State on 
permits for purposes of immediate slaughter is small, being only 
those of which the office of the department has report, and 
does not represent the amount of business in slaughter animals, 
as much of the time during the year such animals were allowed 
to be shipped, without special permit, to slaughtering establish- 
ments which were under United States government inspection. 

For several years, at the request of the United States Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Labor, a report of the receipts of all 
live stock at Boston has been sent to Washington each month. 
The following table shows the receipts by months for the past 
year: — 



Receipts of Live Stock at Boston for Twelve Months ending Nov. 80, 1915. 



For Month of — . 


Cattle. 


Calves. 


Sheep. 


Swine. 


Horses. 


December, 


8,244 


8,792 


29,051 


137,860 


2,485 


January, 










5,614 


7,523 


14,945 


142,175 


1,499 


February, 










4,168 


5,827 


16,356 


129,031 


1,861 


March, 










5,260 


10,418 


10,210 


109,669 


2,077 


April, . 










3,701 


13,074 


19,298 


66,969 


2,065 


May, . 










3,960 


11,816 


20,105 


73,202 


1,560 


June, . 










5,041 


13,322 


26,335 


112,282 


2,152 


July, . 










6,771 


10,391 


30,352 


103,533 


2,144 


August, 










7,803 


8,031 


32,185 


55,874 


1,628 


September, 










8,290 


10,881 


34,177 


44,233 


1,430 


October, 










10,046 


12,400 


40,488 


40,056 


1,338 


November, 










11,703 


14,440 


43,736 


70,943 


1,583 












80,601 


126,915 


317,238 


1,085,827 


21,820 



58 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Tan. 



Miscellaneous Diseases. 

Anthrax is a disease which is widely spread throughout the 
world, and is the cause of serious loss to Massachusetts cattle 
owners. As animals ordinarily succumb within a few hours of 
the onset of the disease, the first animals attacked on a par- 
ticular farm have generally died before treatment could be 
applied. 

On the notice of an outbreak of this disease all animals on 
the infected premises are immediately inoculated with anthrax 
serum and spore vaccine as a matter of safety. This inoculation 
is in most cases effective in immunizing the animals for a 
certain length of time, thereby preventing further extension of 
the disease at that point. 

As the spores of the causative agent of this disease remain 
lodged in the soil in an active state for many years in infected 
localities, it is necessary to continue preventive inoculation from 
year to year on premises where the disease has once appeared. 

Thirteen neat cattle and 1 sheep have died from this disease 
during the past year, and 72 neat cattle, 1 sheep and 10 horses 
have been given preventive inoculation. 

In quite a few instances the disease has appeared during the 
past year on premises where it has never been known before, 
and our efforts have been directed toward saving the animals 
exposed to the same conditions of pasturage and feed as those 
which have died. These efforts will be continued by preventive 
inoculation during the next season of all animals on premises 
where the disease has been known to exist. 

Blackleg, or symptomatic anthrax, has been the cause of 
death of 32 head of cattle, and 440 head have been given 
preventive inoculation. The same necessity for yearly pre- 
ventive treatment exists in control of this disease as in that of 
anthrax. 

Another disease which has been quite prevalent during the 
past year is hemorrhagic septicemia, from which 54 deaths 
have occurred. Differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult as 
between blackleg, anthrax and hemorrhagic septicemia, and a 
positive conclusion is reached only as a result of laboratory 
examination of specimens. All these diseases are characterized 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 59 

by sudden inception and early death, and therefore require 
very prompt investigation upon the occasion of outbreak. 
Investigation now being made by the Federal government as to 
all conditions relating to source of infection, course of the 
disease, and prophylactic treatment has already been of great 
aid to this department, and promises to be of still further 
advantage in control work. 

The attention of the department having been called to the 
existence of scabies in sheep on the Island of Nantucket, an 
investigation of the same was made, which disclosed the fact 
that this disease had existed on the island for a long period of 
years, and that although the island was naturally adapted to 
sheep raising, many people had been deterred from engaging in 
that enterprise on account of the existence of this contagious 
disease. 

An agent of this department, in company with an inspector 
of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry, made a 
thorough investigation. They were able to make a positive 
diagnosis of scabies affecting practically all the sheep on one 
farm, and were satisfied that it existed nowhere else on the 
island. Details of plans for eradication were taken up with the 
owner, and treatment was finally applied according to methods 
recognized as effective. The result is that the animals have 
been cured and the disease entirely eradicated from the island. 
Additional precautionary treatment of these animals will be 
insisted upon during the coming summer, in order that another 
outbreak may not occur, and that persons wishing to engage in 
sheep raising may do so without fear of losing their animals 
from this scourge which has been present on the island for so 
many years. 

Actinomycosis has been reported on 10 farms. Seven animals 
have been slaughtered, 2 have recovered, 1 proved not to be a 
case of this disease, and there is 1 animal still under observa- 
tion. 

Mange has been reported as existing on 11 farms. It was 
found in one instance, however, that it did not exist, and on the 
remaining 10 places 9 head of cattle, 2 dogs, 1 horse and 35 
swine were affected. Treatment was accordingly advised with 
the result that no extension of the disease has been reported. 



60 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 

Suspicious symptoms of contagious disease have been re- 
ported in twenty instances where upon investigation no disease 
of a contagious nature was found. 

Annual Inspection of Fakm Animals and Premises. 

The inspection of neat cattle, other farm animals and 
premises upon which they are kept, which for a number of 
years has been made annually by the inspectors of animals 
of the different cities and towns, by order of the commissioner of 
this department, was the past year omitted on account of the 
prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease. An order directing this 
inspection to be made was sent from the office of the depart- 
ment on Jan. 22, 1915, when it seemed as if the prevalence of 
foot-and-mouth disease was at an end; but a secondary out- 
break of this disease occurring a few days later the order was 
revoked, it being deemed unwise to take the chance of spreading 
the infection by means of the inspectors traveling from farm 
to farm, as it had been found by experience that the most 
common means by which this infection had been spread was by 
people carrying the same on their clothing from one farm to 
another. Furthermore, cattle owners who were making in- 
dividual efforts to maintain a quarantine of their own premises 
were very much averse to having people enter their barns 
unless it seemed to be absolutely necessary. 

Barn inspection by the different agents of the department has 
for the same reason been limited to instances where contagious 
disease has been known to exist, and to farm-to-farm inspection 
necessary to determine the extent of any outbreak of foot-and- 
mouth disease in any particular locality. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 98. 



61 



Financial Statement. 

Appropriation for the salary of the commissioner, chapter 126, Acts 
of 1915, . . ... . . 

Total expenditure, . . . . . . . . 

Appropriation for clerical assistance and contingent expenses, chap- 
ters 126 and 369, Acts of 1915 

Expended during the year: — 
For expenses of the commissioner, . . . $278 58 

For salaries of clerks and stenographers, . . 3,607 61 

For printing, postage, stationery, etc., ." . . . 5,091 11 



Total expenditure, 
Unexpended balance, 



Appropriation for compensating owners of animals killed and prop 
erty destroyed during epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease, 
chapter 277, Special Acts of 1915, . 

Total expenditure, . . ... 

Unexpended balance, 



Appropriation for the extermination of contagious 
diseases among domestic animals, chapter 125, 
Acts of L915, 

Transferred by State Auditor from appropriation 
for extraordinary expenses, . . . 

Total amount appropriated, . 

Expended during the year: — 
For 1,094 head of cattle condemned and killed on 

account of tuberculosis in 1913, 1914 and 1915, 

paid for in 1915, . . 

For 389 horses condemned and killed on account of 

glanders and farcy in 1912, 1913, 1914 and 1915, 

paid for in 1915, ...... 

For expenses of killing and burial and disinfection 

of premises, . . . 

For quarantine claims, .... 

For laboratory and experimental station expenses, 
For implements, ear tags, thermometers, etc., 
For quarantine station expenses, . 
For services of agents, 
For expenses of agents, .... 

Total expenditure, .... 
Unexpended balance, 



$3,500 00 
$3,500 00 



),500 00 



$8,977 30 
522 70 


$9,500 00 




led and prop- 
outh disease, 

$113,195 12 

36,804 88 


$150,000 00 
$150,000 00 




$133,000 00 
2,500 00 






$135,500 00 



,295 72 



19,600 00 

8,776 32 

564 25 

3,405 33 

1,308 27 

6,106 03 

38,679 34 

21,704 50 

$135,439 76 
60 24 



$135,500 00 



62 ANIMAL INDUSTRY. [Jan. 1916. 

The average price paid for condemned cattle for the year was 
$32.26. 

There has been received during the year from the sale of 
hides and carcasses of condemned animals, sale of tuberculin 
and serum, and for the testing of cattle for nonresident owners, 
$5,557.29. 

Claims for 115 head of cattle condemned and killed as 
tuberculous during the year remain unsettled, to be paid for on 
proof of claims, the appraised value of which amounts to 
$3,414. 

Claims for 34 horses condemned and killed during the year 
because affected with glanders remain unsettled, to be paid for 
on proof of claims, the allowance for which under the law will 
amount to $1,650. 

The undersigned assumed the duties of the head of the de- 
partment on Jan. 2, 1915. 

Respectfully submitted, 

LESTER H. HOWARD, 

Commissioner of Animal Industry. 



s 



H 



OCT ?i 1926 








4MJB 



hb 



Hi 



■ ■'•■■•■• 
■ ■-•• 

gssssgggii 




■••■'■•?■■ 

j p jw n flfl g ftBflgl 

a gffigO Bg ll 

■ v § ' '